Information on the regulation, restriction, control, and reporting of the pesticides in the State of Maine.
Maine Board of Pesticides Control -   http://www.maine.gov/agriculture/pesticides/about/index.shtml

Information on the regulations and controls of the 'crop dusters'
National  Agricultural Aviation Association - http://www.agaviation.org/naaref.htm 

Information and Fact Sheets on Wild Blueberries
Maine Cooperative Extension -  http://wildblueberries.maine.edu/

UMCE Fact Sheet # 209  - 2007 Insect Control Guide for Wild Blueberries
http://wildblueberries.maine.edu/FactSheets/209.htm

An article from The Ellsworth American

Properly Used, Pesticides Have Their Place
Written by David Yarborough   
Thursday, October 26, 2006 - The Ellsworth American.
I would like to respond to the Another Viewpoint commentary “Pesticides are Poisons,” which appeared in The Ellsworth American of Oct. 12. It is true that pesticides by their very definition are poisons and I certainly do not advocate “a policy of poisoning Maine people, air and water.”

The University of Maine has done extensive research on understanding the biology of insects, weeds and diseases. Wild blueberry growers have been using sweeping and trapping Integrated Pest Management (IPM) techniques developed by the university for over 30 years. UMaine faculty have evaluated and provided support for registration of many reduced risk, biological and pesticides approved for organic production. (That’s right. Organic farmers can and do use pesticides.) I am currently a co-investigator with three other faculty members and an economist on a USDA study to evaluate organic methods to transition from conventional to organic wild blueberry production. The use of these IPM techniques developed at the University of Maine allows growers the tools to monitor their pest populations and to apply the best alternative only when it will cause economic injury to the crop. This has allowed wild blueberry growers to reduce the few pesticide applications that are needed to protect the crop.

We are fortunate in Maine in that the short growing season and severe winter naturally limit pest populations so that Maine growers apply fewer pesticide applications than those in warmer parts of this country. Blueberry growers also have a non-cropping year that also disrupts weed growth and disease and insect cycles, so that wild blueberry growers use the least amount of any pesticides of any commercial crop in this country.

What is missing from the concept of “Pesticides Are Poisons” is that it is both the dose and the exposure make the poison. Although some pesticides, especially the insecticides, are toxic to humans in the concentrated form, this is not what the public is exposed to. Pesticides are applied in a diluted solution on fields, and in the use of insecticides, at a dose that will kill a fly, not a human. These chemicals have to undergo years of tests at a cost of millions of dollars and are licensed for use by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

So the notion that pesticides are good for all of us is correct. Pesticides allow farmers to produce a safe, abundant and inexpensive food supply. Because we spend so little on our food we have more disposable income and are able to obtain a better education or take a vacation in Maine. It allows people with limited income access to the healthy fruits and vegetables that are proven to prevent cancers and improve the quality of our lives. Wild blueberries have the highest antioxidant level of 40 fruits and vegetables tested by the USDA, so producing and consuming more wild blueberries is beneficial for everyone.

I am proud that the University of Maine research and education provided to Maine wild blueberry growers has allowed them to increase the crop in Maine from 20 million to 75 million pounds over the past 20 years and has allowed Maine growers to remain competitive with Canadian wild and cultivated blueberries grown throughout the world. Wild blueberry fields provide open habitat and increased edge habitat for wildlife such as bear, deer and turkeys. Keeping these fields in viable agriculture is far more beneficial than the alternative of house lots and sprawl. It is unfortunate that so many resources are wasted on speculating on the effects of minute chemical residues; leaving less resources to address the proven sources of our health problems: cigarette smoke, lack of exercise, excess consumption of fats, sugars and carbohydrates and insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables.

David E. Yarborough, PhD, is a blueberry specialist and professor of horticulture at the University of Maine in Orono


Public information on Maine Pesticides -

Common Maine Agricultural Pesticides with Environmental Fate Information* and
2006 Drinking Water Advisory Levels**

Active Ingredient

Selected Trade Names

Fungicide (F)
Herbicide (H)
Insecticide (I)

Potential for Water Contamination
Drinking Water Guidelines
(ug/L; ppb)
Groundwater
Surface Water; Runoff
EPA
Maine
Leaching
Solution
Adsorbed
MCL
HAL
MEG

2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID (salts and esters)

Amine 4, Formula 40, Weedar 64, Weedestroy

H

Intermediate

Intermediate

Low

70

na***

70

ATRAZINE

Aatrex, Bicep, Lumax, Liberty Atz, Axiom AT, Basis Gold, Lariat, Bullet, Harness Xtra, Marksman, Laddok 5L, etc.

H

High

High

Intermediate

3

na

3

AZINPHOS-METHYL

Guthion, Sniper

I

Low

Intermediate

Intermediate

na

na

11

AZOXYSTROBIN

Heritage, Abound, ICIA5504, Quadris/Ridomil Gold, Dynasty, Amistar, Quilt, Protégé

F

Low

High

High

na

na

na

CAPTAN

Captan, Captec

F

Low

Intermediate

Low

na

na

146

CARBARYL

Carbaryl, Sevin

I

Very Low

Low

Low

na

na

70

CARBOFURAN

Furadan

I

High

High

Intermediate

40

na

35

CHLOROTHALONIL

Bravo, Echo, Equus, Daconil

F

Low

Intermediate

Intermediate

na

na

45

CHLORPYRIFOS

Dursban, Lorsban

I

Low

Low

Intermediate

na

2

20

CYMOXANIL

Curzate, Dupont Tanos, Evolve

F

Low

Intermediate

Low

na

na

na

DIAZINON

Diazinon

I

Low

High

High

na

1

0.6

DIQUAT

Reglone, Reward, Prosecutor

H

Very Low

Low

High

20

na

15

DISULFOTON

Di-Syston

I

Intermediate

High

Low

na

0.7

0.3

DIURON

Direx, Karmex, Krovar

H

Intermediate

High

Intermediate

na

na

14

ENDOSULFAN

Thiodan, Phaser

I

Very Low

Intermediate

High

na

na

42

ENDOTHALL

Des-I-cate

H

Intermediate

Intermediate

Low

100

50

140

ESFENVALERATE

Asana

I

Low

Intermediate

Intermediate

na

na

na

ETHOPROP

Mocap

I

High

Intermediate

Low

na

na

na

FENVALERATE

Crossfire

I

Low

Intermediate

Intermediate

na

na

na

FLUTOLANIL

Prostar, Contrast, Systar, Montero, Moncoat, Artisan

F

Intermediate

High

Intermediate

na

na

na

FOSETYL-AL

Aliette, Lesco Prodigy Signature, Terronate

F

Low

Intermediate

Low

na

na

na

GLUFOSINATE-AMMONIUM

Finale, Derringer

H

Low

Intermediate

Low

na

na

na

GLYPHOSATE

Touchdown, Roundup

H

Very Low

High

High

700

na

700

HEXAZINONE

Velpar, Pronone

H

High

High

Intermediate

na

400

230

IMIDACLOPRID

Admire, Provado, Gaucho, Merit

I

High

High

Intermediate

na

na

na

LAMBDA-CYHALOTHRIN

Demand, Warrior

I

Very Low

Low

Intermediate

na

na

na

LINURON

Linex, Lorox, Layby

H

Intermediate

High

Intermediate

na

na

na

MALEIC HYDRAZIDE

Royal MH-30, Sprout Stop

Plant Growth Regulator

Intermediate

Intermediate

Low

na

4000

3500

MANCOZEB

Manzate, Penncozeb, Dithane

F

Low

High

High

na

na

6

MCPA

Rhomene, Tripower, Trimec

H

Low

Intermediate

Intermediate

na

30

4

MCPP

Tripower, Trimec

H

High

Intermediate

Low

na

na

na

METAM-SODIUM

Vapam

Fumigant

Intermediate

Intermediate

Low

na

na

na

METHAMIDOPHOS

Monitor, Orthotox

I

Intermediate

Intermediate

Low

na

na

na

METHOMYL

Lannate

I

High

Intermediate

Low

na

200

175

METIRAM

Polyram

F

Very Low

Low

Intermediate

na

na

na

METRIBUZIN

Boundary, Sencor, Turbo, Axiom, Domain, Authority, Canopy, Top Gun, Metri

H

High

High

Low

na

70

na

NAPROPAMIDE

Devrinol

H

Intermediate

High

Intermediate

na

na

na

PARAQUAT Gramoxone, Cyclone, Surefire, Marman Herbiquat
H
Very Low Low High
na
30
3
PENDIMETHALIN Prowl
H
Low Intermediate High
na
na
na
PENTACHLORO-
NITROBENZENE
Terraclor
F
Low Low Intermediate
na
na
na
PHOSMET Imidan
I
Low Intermediate Low
na
na
na
PROPICONAZOLE Orbit
F
Intermediate High High
na
na
9
SETHOXYDIM Poast
H
Low Intermediate Low
na
na
na
SIMAZINE Princep
H
High High Intermediate
4
na
3.5
S-METOLACHLOR Dual, Bicep
H
High High Intermediate
na
700
100
TERBACIL Sinbar
H
High High Intermediate
na
90
90
THIABENDAZOLE Mertect
F
Low High High
na
na
na
THIOPHANATE-
METHYL
Topsin M, Banrot
F
Low Intermediate Intermediate
na
na
na
TRIPHENYLTIN Super Tin
F
     
na
na
na
VINCLOZOLIN Curalan, Lesco Touche, Ronilan, Vorlan
F
Intermediate Intermediate Low
na
na
na

*All environmental fate information in this table was provided by the United States Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service. For details on how these values were established call Joseph Bagdon, Pest Management Specialist and WIN-PST Team Leader, at (413) 253-4376, or email joseph.bagdon@ma.usda.gov. Written correspondence can be sent to: USDA/NRCS National Water and Climate Center, 451 West Street, Amherst, MA 01002-2995, Fax: (413) 253-4375.

**There are basically two types of health-based acceptable levels for pesticides in drinking water; these are the standards (EPA's MCLs) and the guidelines (EPA's HALs and Maine's MEGs). MCLs are enforceable for public water systems, as defined by the Safe Drinking Water Act, and in setting them, the best available technology to achieve the level has to be considered. MEGs are set by the Environmental Toxicology program in the Maine Centers for Disease Control (MeCDC), and some of the values listed are final MEGs and some are interim. The MCLs and the guidelines (HALs and MEGs) are all used for guidance in private well situations. Other potential routes of pesticide exposure to humans include dermal and inhalation. For more information, please contact Lebelle Hicks, BPC Toxicologist, (207) 287-7594, or lebelle.hicks@maine.gov.

*** na = not available

Acronyms and abbreviations used in this table:
EPA—US Environmental Protection Agency
HAL—Health Advisory Level
MCL—Maximum Contaminant Level
MEG—Maximum Exposure Guidelines