Articulations and Movements

General arthrology

classification of articulations

based on movement

immoveable  [synarthroses]

slightly moveable  [amphiarthroses]

freely moveable  [diarthroses]

based on structure

bony

synostoses

fibrous

sutures

fontanels

syndesmoses

gomphoses

cartilaginous

synchondroses

symphyses

synovial

structure

articular capsule

synovial membrane

synovial fluid

articular cartilage

ligaments

types

gliding

hinge  [ginglymal]

pivot  [trochoid]

condyloid  [ellipsoid]

saddle

ball-and-socket

bursae

tendon sheaths

Movements

Joint Axes
  transverse axis hinge
    uniaxial joints
  anteroposterior axis
    biaxial joints
  vertical axis
    triaxial joints

Joint Movements
flexion extension
dorsiflexion plantar flexion
abduction adduction
protraction retraction
elevation depression
circumduction
opposition
lateral flexion
[axial] rotation
medial rotation lateral rotation
a diagram clarifying rotation
pronation supination
inversion eversion
“supination”
of foot
“pronation”
of foot

Questions for thought
1.   Using a labeled diagram, present the structure of the synovial joint.
2.   Speculate on why the popliteal fossa of the knee faces posteriorly while the cubital fossa of elbow faces forward.
3.   Discuss why the radioulnar interosseous membrane should not be considered a syndesmosis like the distal tibiofibular joint.
4.   Discuss the movements possible at a triaxial joint, using either the hip or shoulder as your example.
5.   What is meant by the term “modified hinge joint”? Analyze fully at least two examples.
6.   Describe the movements at IP joints II-V in the hand. And yet in the thumb, these movements occur at the MP joint. How do they differ in the thumb?

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