Reproductive System Anatomy

Primary sex organs (gonads)

testes

ovaries

Gonads produce sex cells, the gametes, and secrete sex hormones

Accessory reproductive organs

Sex hormones

androgens

estrogens and progesterone

Sex hormones play roles in:

development and function of the reproductive organs

sexual behavior and drives

growth and development of many other organs and tissues

Male Reproductive System

testes produce sperm; lie within the scrotum

ducts: epididymis, ductus deferens, and the urethra

accessory sex glands:

empty their secretions during ejaculation

seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands

The Scrotum

anatomy

functions

dartos m [dartos muliebris in female labium majus]

cremaster m [associated with ligamentum teres uteri in female]

The Testes

tunics:

tunica vaginalis

tunica albuginea

septa

seminiferous tubules:

produce the sperm

tubuli recti

rete testis

efferent ductules (ductuli efferentes)

epididymis (ductus epididymidis)

interstitial cells (of Leydig)

testicular arteries

testicular veins; pampiniform plexus

spermatic cord

Penis

copulatory organ

attached root; free shaft ends in the glans penis

prepuce, or foreskin

circumcision

internal structure

erectile tissue

erection

corpus spongiosum

corpora cavernosa

crura; ischiocavernosus muscle

Epididymis

head caps superior aspect of the testis

duct of the epididymis has stereocilia

sperm gain motility

epididymis contracts

Ductus Deferens

inguinal canal into the pelvic cavity

ampulla; ejaculatory duct

vasectomy

Urethra

conveys both urine and semen

three regions

prostatic

membranous

spongy, or penile

Seminal Vesicles

secrete 60% of the volume of semen

with ductus deferens forms ejaculatory duct

Prostate Gland

encircles part of urethra inferior to bladder

secretes slightly acid fluid

role in activation of sperm

Bulborethral Glands (Cowper’s Glands)

inferior to prostate

produce thick, clear mucus

Semen

fructose

prostaglandins

relaxin

alkalinity

seminal plasmin

clotting factors

fibrinolysin

Erection

Ejaculation

Emission

Female Reproductive Anatomy

ovaries

make female gametes

secrete female sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone)

accessory ducts:  uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina

The Ovaries

ligaments

ovarian

suspensory

mesovarium

broad ligament

Blood supply:  ovarian aa; ovarian branch of uterine a

tunica albuginea; germinal epithelium

ovarian follicles

oöcyte

follicular cells

granulosa cells

primordial follicle

primary follicle

secondary follicle

Graafian follicle

ovulation

corpus luteum

Uterine Tubes (Fallopian Tubes; Oviducts)

isthmus

ampulla

infundibulum containing fingerlike projections, the fimbriae

mesosalpinx

Uterus

body

fundus

isthmus

cervix

cervical canal

external os

internal os

cervical glands

Supports of the Uterus

mesometrium

lateral cervical ligaments

uterosacral ligaments

round ligaments; labia majora

Peritoneal Pouches

peritoneal cul-de-sacs

vesicouterine pouch

rectouterine pouch

Uterine Wall

three layers

perimetrium

myometrium

endometrium

Endometrium

stratum functionalis

stratum basalis

Uterine Vascular Supply

uterine arteries

arcuate arteries

radial branches

spiral arteries to the stratum functionalis

straight arteries to the stratum basalis

Vagina

wall:  fibroelastic adventitia, smooth muscle muscularis, and stratified squamous mucosa

hymen

vaginal fornix

External Genitalia:  Vulva (Pudenda)

mons pubis

labia majora (labium majus)

labia minora (labium minus)

greater vestibular glands

clitoris

perineum

diamond-shaped region between the pubic arch and coccyx

bordered by the ischial tuberosities laterally

Mammary Glands

15-25 lobes

suspensory ligaments

glandular compound alveolar glands

lactiferous ducts

Questions for thought
1. Explain why the term urogenital system is more applicable to males than to females.
2. A man swam in a cold lake for an hour and on undressing noticed that his scrotum was shrunken and wrinkled. His first thought was that he had lost his testicles. Explain what really happened.
3. Diagram the anatomy of perineum of the male. Describe how the female perineal anatomy is but a variation on that theme.
4. Explain why the term germinal epithelium is a misnomer, but do include any contributions it might make to the final anatomy of the ovary.
5. Comment on the statement that “the process of menstruation is, when viewed from the perspective of biological reproductive physiology, an abnormal event”.
6. List the path a sperm would take from its site of formation in the seminiferous tubules of the testis to its ejaculation through the external urethral orifice ultimately to its fertilization of an oöcyte in the ampulla of the fallopian tube. What glands would contribute their secretions along the way? Assume normal coitus.