click here for answers
Home Work Assignment 13
       
Phil 106 – Critical Thinking      Name________________________________
Fall 2007       Section_______________________________
Instructor: Ray Darr     Date_________________________________
       

     

 

Place the letter that corresponds to the correct word or phrase in the space provided to the left of the question The answers can be found in Chapter 7.  Also read pp. 320-323.

 

___ ___1.Whenever we make an inference to a conclusion about a group of instances without observing all the instances in the group we have made a(n) a. invalid argument b. generalization c. error d. enumeration.

 

___ __2.Whenever we form a conclusion based on the observation of all the instances in the group, we have  formed this conclusion by the process of  a argument b. generalization c. assumption d. enumeration.

 

___ ___3.If we select a sample in such a manner that nothing but chance determines the instances selected we have created a(n) a. stratified  b. false c. loaded d. random sample

 

______4.If  the sample that is generated contains a disproportionate number of instances of any particular kind  then that sample is said to be a(n) a. stratified  b. false c. loaded d. random sample.

 

_____5.In inductive reasoning, a.  plausibility b. explanatory power c. relevance d. agreement refers to factors which might reasonably be thought to have some effect on the conclusion being inferred.

 

______6.The informal fallacy that consists of inferring that there exist a causal connection between two events merely because these events occur at the same time and place (temporal contiguity)  is referred to as a. agreement b. difference c. Post hoc, ergo propter hoc d. slippery slope

 

______7.Mill’s method of a. difference b. agreement c. concomitant variation d. relevance  is the principle of causal reasoning that consists of finding one common antecedent condition in all of the cases in which the effect we are trying to explain has occurred.

 

______8.Mill’s method of a. difference b. agreement c. concomitant variation d. relevance is the principle of causal reasoning that consists of looking for a correlation between the absence of the effect and the absence of the antecedent condition.

 

_____9The method of a. difference b. agreement c. concomitant variation d. relevance is a principle of causal reasoning that consists of varying a suspected cause and checking for the corresponding variation in the effects.

 

_____10.The fallacy of a. agreement b. difference c. Post hoc, ergo propter hoc d. slippery slope consists of objecting to something on the grounds that it will lead, by dubious causal reasoning, to some unacceptable consequences.

 

_____11.The informal fallacy of a. difference b. agreement c. concomitant variation d. causal oversimplification  is a variety of causal fallacy in which significant causal factors or variables are overlooked.

 

_____12.A a. formal b. diverging c. converging d. disjunctive proposition is a proposition that increases the probability that a hypothesis is true.

 

_____13A a. formal b. diverging c. converging d. disjunctive proposition is a proposition that reduces the probability that a hypothesis is true.

 

_____14. a. Explanatory power b. Plausibility c. Truth d. Method of difference is a measure of an ideas likelihood of surviving critical scrutiny.

 

_____15. A(n) a . hypothesis b. target c. sample c. analogy is a group of particular observed instances used in inductive or statistical generalizations.