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Home Work Assignment 16
Phil 106 – Critical Thinking      Name________________________________
Fall 2007       Section_______________________________
Instructor: Ray Darr     Date_________________________________



Place the letter that corresponds to the correct word or phrase in the space provided to the left of the question.  The answers can be found in chapter 8 and chapters 9-11.


_____1. A strong inductive argument based on true or at least defensible premises is            (a) sound (b) cogent (c) valid (d) conclusive.


_____2. A(n)  (a) sound (b) cogent (c) valid (d) conclusive deductive argument is both valid and based on at least true or defensible premises.


_____3. If a deductive argument is either invalid or is based on false or dubious premises then that deductive argument is said to be (a) unsound (b) non-cogent (c) invalid   (d) inconclusive.


Answer the following questions by placing either a “T” or “F” in the space provided to the left of the question.


_____4. An informal fallacy is an inference whose unreliability is due to something other than its formal structure.


_____5. An ambiguous claim or expression is one that can be understood in more than one way.


_____6. Evidence is information that is relevant to an inference.


_____7. An inductive inference is one in which the premises leave no room for doubt.


_____8.One of the most common pitfalls to inductive reasoning is the overestimation of the strength of an inductive inference.


_____9. One of the most powerful tools that may be employed for evaluating both deductive and inductive arguments is consistency.


_____10. Reductio ad absurdum (“to reduce to absurdity”) is an effective general strategy used when we don’t know for certain if a proposition is true or not.  It is a disproof of a proposition by showing that it leads to absurd or untenable conclusions.