Lecture Schedule
Phil 320 - Ethics – Spring 2009
Instructor – Ray Darr

Week 1
Monday 01/12/09 - Reason and Morality - Social Scientists, Casuists, Moralists and Ethical Theorists.  History and Ethical Theory.  The four great schools of antiquity - Plato's Academy, Aristotle's Lyceum, Epicurus' Garden, Zeno's Stoa.  (I would also like to add here Diogenes' (of Sinope) washtub - the philosophy of Cynicism.) The Nature of Ethical Theory.  Meta-ethics, Normative Ethics, and Applied Ethics.
Wednesday 01/14/09 – Knowledge and Virtue - The philosophy of Plato. - Socrates and the Sophists.  What is Justice?  Is injustice more profitable than Justice?  Objective correctness and the Forms.  Knowledge of the Forms and innate ideas. This will be important when we discuss St. Augustine) Injustice and disease. (p.20) The Good in-itself/Ultimate Knowledge - Moral evaluations in daily life presuppose a "Good" which is independent of personality and experience.

Week 2
Monday 01/19/09 – No School - National Holiday – Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Holiday
Wednesday 01/21/09 Moral Character - Aristotle and empiricism.  The Nicomachean Ethics - Unity of Form and Matter.  The basic moral principle is immanent in the activities of our daily lives. The basic moral principle can only be discovered by studying human activity. The ultimate End - Happiness (self-sufficient, final and attainable) Actuality and potentiality.  Virtue - the excellence of a thing. (Arête') Human virtue - moral and intellectual. Intrinsic and extrinsic goods. Investigations - practical and theoretical.

Week 3
Monday 01/26/09 Aristotle cont’d Teleology Moral Virtue - human personality (passions, faculties and states of character)   Virtue is a state of character.  The morally virtuous person and the "Golden Mean” (Discussion - the Golden Mean is not an absolute value - not the same for all individuals.  Can Aristotle's Golden Mean be reduced to a form of cultural ethical relativism?)
Wednesday 01/28/09 Epicurus - The pleasant Life - The Garden of Epicurus - Hedonism - sensual pleasure v peace of mind
Democritus - Doctrine of Nature - only natural causes operate in the world ""Nothing is created out of nothing".  The nature of the Gods - setting forth the principles of the good life - two fundamental beliefs a. God is truly blessed and is therefore above dealing in rewards and punishment for human b. Death means nothing to us.  Pleasant life more desirable than a long life.  The prudent person Free will and Determinism. Psychological hedonism and Ethical hedonism

Week 4
Monday 02/02/09 – Epictetus - Self-Discipline - Stoicism - The Logos - Stoicism and the Roman military Stoa Poikile (Porch of Peisianax) – the Painted Porch  - Zeno of Citium (301BC) - Human virtue and happiness Stoicism and Christianity (Logos - 2nd person of the Trinity) Asceticism -  Live in accordance with nature -  Apathy (Apathea)  Determinism - askēsis clear judgment and inner calm
Diogenes (of Sinope) - The Cynic - essence of Cynicism Diogenes and Alexander the Great (as reported by Plutarch)
Wednesday 02/04/09 - Quiz 1

Week 5
Monday 02/09/09 The Love of God - The Conversion of the Roman Empire - Constantine I (ruled 306 - 337)-and the Edict of Milan, Constantine's son, Flavius Julius Constans and the criminalization of paganism. Saint Augustine (354-430) Neo-Platonism, Manicheans, Dualism and the convincing of the Roman Empire.  The adaptation of Platonism to Christianity the Plato of the Middle Ages "In loving God, we love Truth”.  Evil in the Universe and the absence of good...  Evil not a positive attribute or characteristic.  Free will and the ability to choose poorly - defective.  Precepts of Jesus - Love God and Love your neighbor as you love yourself. The beatific vision -the reward of faith.  Innate knowledge of God and human conscience.
Wednesday 02/11/09 Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) The Aristotle of Middle Ages - Morality and Natural Law - Ultimate principles and intuitive knowledge of natural law.  Freedom of will/Freedom of choice Aristotle revisited.  Key features of a voluntary act. (Initiated by the agent b. done for a rational ascertained end.  Aquinas - good or evil is determined by intention of the agent not by consequences produced. 

Week 6
Monday 02/16/09 Special presentation - Candidate #1 – Feminist Ethics.  In preparation for this presentation I want you to have finished reading “Ethics as Trusting in Trust” by Annette Baier. Be prepared to compare and contrast Baier’s ideas of “trust relationships” with Hobbes’ “social contract.  Hint: look at the discussion surrounding male contractual trust [Hobbes] / egoism and self-preservation and Baier’s trust-worthiness in unequal, non-voluntary non-contract based relationships.  I will prepare assignments for both of these topics.
Wednesday 02/18/09 – Thomas Hobbes Social contract Ethics (1588 - 1679) Mechanistic Materialism - Physics and Psychology "mental phenomena are nothing but physiological motions”.  Egoism - Society exists out of self interest. The movement from a State of Nature to Society.  The social contract. Social relations not derived from original nature of humanity. The termination of the perpetual warfare of the state of nature achieved by the instrumentality of reason - The Law of Nature and the Golden Rule - Hobbes and the Absolute Sovereign

Week 7
Monday 02/23/09 Spinoza (1632-1677) Rationalism - Spinoza’s Ethics Pantheism - free will and determinism - True Freedom.  The Acquisition of knowledge and virtue - Conatus   - The third level of Knowledge.
Wednesday 02/25/09 Quiz 2

Week 8
Monday 03/02/09Review
Wednesday 03/04/09 Midterm

Week 9 Spring Break 03/ 9-15 /08

Week 10
Monday 03/16/09 David Hume David Hume (1711-1776) Morality and Sentiment - Natural Philosophy - The source of morality -rational or passional nature?  Apriori v. A posteriori, sentiments of approbation v. disapprobation   The social virtue of benevolence universally esteemed.  Justice as a virtue - sole source located in utility.  Justice is useful to society.  The language of self love v. language of social consent.  (The man is my enemy, rival, antagonist v. the man is vicious, odious or depraved.)
Wednesday 03/15/09 Immanuel Kant (1724 -1804) Duty and Reason - Deontological logic - Subjectivity and Objectivity -
Valid moral principles - The Good Will, the product of reason - good will and duty - Hypothetical Imperative/Categorical Imperative -”
The three formulations of the Categorical Imperative.   The Kingdom of Ends - “Pure Moral Philosophy

Week 11
Monday 03/23/09 John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) The Greatest Happiness Principle - The doctrine of Utility. Quantitative and qualitative aspects of pleasure.  Cultural Ethical Relativism
Wednesday 03/25/09 Utilitarianism and Hedonism - Individual psychological hedonism v. universal ethical hedonism - Consequentialism - Egoism and Altruism.  The Harm Principle.  Epicurus revisited External sanctions (social and supernatural) The inner feeling for humanity - its origin and nature.

Week 12
Monday 03/30/09 Existentialism (chapters 14, 17, and 22) Soren Kierkegaard (1813 - 1855) Objective knowledge and self-understanding - inner knowledge.  The predominance of Will over Reason - Three types of existence - Aesthetic (external pleasure), ethical (more than mere conformity to duty - inner passions and earnestness), and the religious (religious faith - suprarational).  The importance of choice - the quality (character) of the person. - the heart of human existence.  Absurdity and the test of human faith.
Wednesday 04/01/09 Friedrich Nietzsche - (1844-1900) The Transvaluation of Values – Master/Slave Morality John Paul Sartre - Radical Freedom - anxiety and despair - condemned to freedom - abandonment and authenticity

Week 13
Monday 04/06/09 Karl Marx (1818-1883) Morality as Ideology Historical Materialism and the Dialectic
Wednesday 04/08/09 John Dewey (1859-1952) Pragmatism Scientific Method in Ethics – Experimentalism – Warranted Assertions

Monday 04/13/09 Review
Wednesday 04/015/09 Quiz 3

Week 15 
Monday 04/20/09 G.E. Moore – The Indefinability of Good -   ethical realism - The Naturalistic Fallacy
Wednesday 04/22/09 Philippa Foot – Moral Virtue and Human Interest – Ethical Naturalism V Ethical Intuitionism, Emotivists, Prescriptivists.  Virtue and Intention
Week 16
Monday 04/27/09 Bernard Williams – Ethical Skepticism – Skepticism and Cynicism – The ethical and the Moral
Wednesday 04/29/09 Loose ends


Week 17 Final Exam Week – May 2-8         Type B Classes starting at 1:00 or 1:30 p.m. Phil 320 MW

Section 002 Wednesday May 6      12:00pm – 1:40pm