Computer Help for the New and Veteran User of Linux

Application Help


  1. How to Rip and Burn Custom CD's from your CD Collection or ISO's.

    Answer: Want to burn your own CD's? I'm not going to get into the argument of copying songs that you haven't bought,.... This tutorial is to show you how to make your own CD's, where you get the songs is your business. I decided to start this tutorial when I bought a CD Changer for my vehicle. I wanted to take all my favorite songs and put them on CD for road trips.

    First you need to get the Ripper to take the songs from the CD. Most of your older CD's don't have anything extra, but the newer ones have a lot of what looks like songs, but if you look at the times, you will see that some are at zero. I guess that is suppose to make copying more difficult. I think it will prevent you from just copying the CD as a whole though, you have to pick the individual songs or you will get an error about there not being enough room on the blank CD to copy. The Ripper I used for Mandrake is Grip: grip-2.96-1mdk, but for Debian I updated to grip-2.98-7 The only difference so far is that with Debian I had to use CDDA2WAV to rip the CD instead of CDPARANOIA. I haven't tested it fully to see why. I will try to remember to look into it later. The formating of the graphics below is a little different with version 2.98.7, but not enough to make a new tutorial. Also I have not installed Lame yet on Debian, for mp3's.

    Grip will rip the songs from the CD. You can also play the songs to see which ones you want, FF, RW,... from within Grip also. Grip is just a GUI frontend for applications like cddawav, cdparanoia,... You will need to configure it. I am not an expert on this and there isn't much documention out there either. I don't know why people write applications and then don't provide good documentation on it. I take that partly back, I did find some pretty good info in the the man pages. So I am going to just show what I have used it for: Wave files. I will also show how to make an MP3, but my CD Changer doesn't support that so I don't use it. Note: The way Linux burns CD's gives you the option of using CD-R or CD-RW to record on. My Changer said it only supported CD-R, but I tried a CD-RW with Wave and MP3's. The Wave files played and the MP3's didn't.

    If you have trouble getting Grip to start or use the CDROM you have the CD in, use this as a guide. You can get this information from Grip man pages. The options I am using here is to select CDROM2 and not use CDDA (local mode only, which is the 'I' switch you see). You get here by right-clicking on the icon entry in the menu and selecting properites. You can also launch grip just as a CD-mode only player by opening a terminal and typing: grip -s which is launch grip in a small (cd-only) mode. For Debian use --small . Add the '-l ' switch if you don't want CDDB lookup to popup. To not use CDDB in Debian use --local . I will probably be installing Mandrake again later on another partition so I can see if these changes are just Debian or the new version.

    Grip Properties

    Getting the feel for Grip main screen: The first picture shows the various controls that first show up. The ones not listed should be familar to you, like the Play and Pause, Stop,... To select a song to rip you right click next to it under the Rip Column and you will see the next picture shows several I have selected. To just play it: Double click on it or click once and select play below. You can also edit the information below to change the name, type of music, track name,.... It will be saved to what ever you want to put in there.

    Grip Main Song to Rip

    Wave files: Before you rip to Wave files though you need to set it up. I don't know every setting, but the ones I show work. Which ever Ripper you want to use, make sure it is installed.

    Rip Config1 Rip Config2

    To get a basic understanding of the command switches they are using here is an what the Rip Command-line and Rip File Format lines mean for CDParanoia and CDDA2WAV. Probably the only one you might want to change is the Rip File Format lines. If you are burning to a player that doesn't display any of that you might not want that information, won't hurt though and you might want it later if you decided to redo the CD. Still this is what I got from the Man pages.

    wavformat

    MP3 files: Same here, before you rip to MP3 files you need to set up both Wave and MP3. First it will rip to wave then encode to mp3. What ever encoder you pick it will change the extension to something other than mp3. So edit it like I have it. I used Lame to encode. I'm only showing one of the encoders here, but there are others to choose from if you have them installed.

    mp3 Config1 mp3 Config2

    A look at how it is set up.



    mp3format

    RIPPING: If you want CDDB, set it up, remember to that I have mine setup at the launch of Grip not to use it, so you will have to change it. To rip just WAVE files click the Rip only button. If you want to make MP3 files click the Rip+Encode button. If you want both, make sure you don't have the checkmark in the Delete .wav after encoding box in the configuration for MP3's. You will see the picture below where these buttons are and the output on the right is where it placed the WAV files. If you did both or just MP3's they are placed in the same directory.

    Chose your poison Grip8

    If you have your CDWriter ready to go you can burn them. If not you will need to set it up. I have how I setup an HP CDWriter 9100 series in Linux. Check out: Decibels CDWriter I use Gcombust to burn CD's. gcombust-0.1.45-2mdk When you have it working correctly, click on the Audio Files Tab and add the audio files you want. Check out the picture below for information on that. Keep an eye at the bottom for the space your taking on the CD to get the maximum use of it.

    Gcombust audio selection

    Once you have all the files you want to put on the CD and in the order you want click the Burn Tab. Set it up for audio, make sure you have the Dummy Test Run check removed, you can do it in Preferences also. If you are using a CD-R you can go ahead and click on the Combust button. If you are using a CD-RW blank it first, then Combust it. Sometimes GCombust will reload the CD before it starts, don't worry that is usually normal.

    Burn it.

    To burn an CD from an ISO Image you just click on the part indicated above for the Image Location, make sure the button is checked and also I have found if using a 80min CD you might want to go to the Data Tab and select 80min instead of the default 74min for the CD size (note: size is not indicated, just look for the 74min and you will see what I am talking about.). Otherwise it might fail and you won't know why.

    There are other CD-Burners to use, but I like GCombust best. The versions of the programs I have used in this tutorial are: Grip-2.96-1mdk , Grip-2.98.7 , GCombust-0.1/45-2mdk , Lame 3.87Beta1 , cdparanoia-IIIa9.8-2mdk , cdda2wav 1.9_linux_2.4.1-20mdksmp_i586_i586 (that's how it's written).



  2. Setup Samba on Gentoo Linux.    Contributed Tutorial

    Answer:

    Samba

    This tutorial is for setting up just two computers, one with just Windows 98 on it, the other one with Windows 98 and Gentoo Linux. They were ALSO already networked in Windows 98 and working. So the Computer Name, IP Addresses and Workgroup we are using here are from the ones setup on the Two working Windows 98 computers. The eth1 on the Gentoo/Windows computer is used for the networking between the machines. The eth0 is the one used for the cable modem hook up on the Gentoo/Windows computer (not shown). And of course eth0 is the ethernet card on the Windows 98 Only computer. Note: This particular setup did not disable the encryption of password in Windows like you see in some tutorials. That is usually used to help solve a problem with the passwords and then you should change it back to encrypted passwords.

    Setup.png

    Samba was installed on Gentoo Linux. Gentoo easily installs Samba with: emerge samba as root. There are other programs that can be used to help setup/use Samba, a few will be discussed here. You can go to Google and search for more.

    From the above picture you can see how the machines were setup.

    Breakdown of steps.
    1. First you need to make sure you have the network setup to work in Gentoo to the Windows Only machine. You will need to edit this file as root: /etc/conf.d/net . Open it with a text editor like Nano or Kedit, then uncomment this line for your eth1 NIC if that is the one you are using: #iface_eth1="198.168.0.2 broadcast 198.0.255.255 netmask 255.255.0.0", putting in your IP address for eth1. If your not using eth1, then you can write your own line and substitute in the number for your ethernet card.
    2. Next, make sure you can Ping one computer from the other. If you can't ping them, then you will never get the networking to work. Also make sure you have the firewall down, if you have one, on the Windows Only machine cause it might interfere. To Ping the Windows machine from the Gentoo computer, open a terminal and type: ping 198.168.0.1 . You should get back a response. You might have to be root if you don't have permission. Next from the Windows Only computer. Open a Dos Prompt window and type in: ping 198.168.0.2 . You should get a response back here also. Substitute your IP addresses for each computer. If you do not get the proper responses back then you need to troubleshoot that first. Otherwise you will be beating your head against the wall wondering why it is not working.
    3. emerge samba If you haven't done so already.
    4. cd /etc/samba   (if you look in the /etc/samba folder there should be a file that is named smb.conf.example, and one that is blank called smb.conf)
    5. cp smb.conf.example  smb.conf
    6. Now with your favorite text editor (I like kedit) open the smb.conf file. You have to be in root to edit files in /etc/samba, or any files in /etc cause root owns any files/folders not in a home folder. Look at my smb.conf file lower on the page. I have not finished working with it but it works. As mentioned earlier another text editor that comes default with Gentoo is Nano. If your not familiar with it, then you would type in: nano /etc/samba/smb.conf .
    7. You can find a lot of information in the manpages, some of the manpages for samba help are (samba, smbd, nmbd, smbpasswd, smbclient), look here before changing the (/etc/smb.conf) file. If you are not familiar with manpages, then to get started type: man samba in a terminal.
    8. You must have the same username and same smbpasswd for both Windows 98 and the Gentoo machine. So do this in the Gentoo machine: smbpasswd -a grant [ Replace 'grant' with your user name ]. It will ask you for the New SMB password xxxxx , then ask you to Retype new SMB password xxxxx. [ If this does not happen. Then you will have to do step number 9 first. If the folder is not in the (/etc/smb.conf) directory it will be made and put there when you do this. The directory is called Private and has a lock on it.]

      You have to do this for each user. Do not use the same password that you used for Users or ROOT, for security reasons. Have a different one for the smbpasswd. Now you have to make a user in the windows machine with the same username and the same sign on password as the smbpasswd.

      Note: You can use smbpasswd as a User also. If as a User you want to change your own password then you can do so. Read the smbpasswd manpages.

    9. rc-update add samba default (This starts Samba next time you bootup, if you don't want this then skip this step. Then if you want to start samba later just type: /etc/init.d/samba start ). If you want to check whether samba is running then you would type /etc/init.d/samba status . To stop it just substitute stop for start or status.

    Here is what I put in the smb.conf file and this worked for me. Read the information in the smb.conf file so that you know what you are doing. It will tell you what stops a line from working. Unless I have something at the side in green it was not changed from the example. From what I see you can fix it up a lot of ways.


    S

    M

    B

    .

    C

    O

    N

    F

    f
    i
    l
    e

          [global]
    workgroup  =  Babs       Computers workgroup
    netbios name  =  NEWPAVILION       Use the name of your server
    server string  =  Samba Server %v
    printcap name  =  lpstat
    load printers  =  yes
    printing  =  cups
    log file  = /var/log/samba/log.%m
    max log size  =  50
    log level  =  3       Removed semi ;colon
    hosts allow  =  192.168.0.1   192.168.0.2   127.       Removed semi ;colon
    password server  =   *       Removed semi ;colon
    password level  =   8       Removed semi ;colon
    username level  =   8       Removed semi ;colon
    encrypt passwords  =  yes
    smb passwd file  =  /etc/samba/private/smbpasswd
    username map   =   /etc/samba/smbusers       Removed semi ;colon
    socket options  =  TCP_NODELAY  SO_RCVBUF=8192  SO_SNDBUF=8192
    interfaces  =   eth1  192.168.0.1   192.168.0.2/255.255.255.0       Removed semi ;colon edited information
    local master  =  yes       Removed semi ;colon changed no to yes
    domain master  =   yes       Removed semi ;colon
    preferred master  =   yes       Removed semi ;colon
    domain logons  =   yes       Removed semi ;colon
    wins support  =   no       Removed semi ;colon changed yes to no
    dns proxy  =   no
    [homes]
    comment  =   Home Directories
    browseable  =   yes       Removed semi ;colon changed no to yes
    writable  =   yes
    [netlogon]       Removed semi ;colon from all of netlogon section
    comment  =  Network Logon Service
    path  =  /var/lib/samba/netlogon
    guest ok  =   yes
    writable  =  no
    [printers]       Have cups for the printer server just like it says near the top of file.
    comment  =  All Printers
    path  =  /var/spool/samba
    browseable  =  no
    guest ok  =  yes
    writable  =   no
    printable  =  yes
    create mode  =  0700
    lpq command  = lpq -P %p       Removed semi ;colon
    lprm command  = cancel  %p-%j       Removed semi ;colon
    [tmp]       Removed semi ;colon from all of tmp section
    comment  =  Temorary file space
    path  =  /tmp
    read only  =   no
    public  =   yes
    [myshare]        Removed semi ;colon and changed the names.
    comment  =   don's and joanne's stuff
    path  =  /home/don/shared
    valid users  =  don  joanne
    public  =  no
    writable  =   yes
    printable  =  no
    create mask  =  0765
    All of the other items that were open I commented them out with a semi ;colon

    If you want to test for other parameters in the smb.conf file that you might want, then just run testparm in a terminal.

    konquerorThis is a picture of what a konqueror screen looks like with the Windows 98 showing and what you type in to get it. My Windows 98 is called OldPavilion. That is what I have called it. So in the location box write this smb://oldpavilion/C/ or just this smb://oldpavilion will get to the other computer and you can browse from there. So use the machinename of your computer where oldpavilion is. With this you can see into Windows and can drag and drop into the Gentoo Linux window. But you can not do it the other way. From Gentoo to Windows, at least not with what I have put here. Note: You could bookmark your shares on the other computer to access it faster if you want with konqueror.
    xfsamba You can also use this Samba browser: emerge xfsamba . Then after it is emerged type this in the terminal xfsamba . That will bring up a screen like this one at the left. Showing both the NEWPAVILION and the OLDPAVILION. You can click on the Oldpavilion on the bottom and it will open the Windows 98 machine. Then you can click on the Icon just below the word FILE in the top left corner and that will open the NEWPAVILION in a different window. from these two windows you can drag and drop from either one.
    Networking

    Network Neighborhood from Windows 98 machine
    newpavilion
    To see the Gentoo linux machine from Windows 98 click on the Network Neighborhood Icon on your desktop. On mine I click on the NEWPAVILION Icon. The picture at the left is looking at Gentoo Linux from the Windows 98 machine. You can see the directories in the Gentoo Machine called Newpavilion. You can open them and see what is in them. With the permissions that I have given them you can enter the homes, myshare, and the one called don. You can copy and paste into all three of them.

    The Printer is physically connected to the Gentoo/Windows computer. The printer set up in Windows was done by trying to print a file with the Windows 98 machine while both machines are networked and the printer on. It will ask you if you want to set it up and you just follow what it says. I browsed through the network to the Gentoo machine and picked the printer on that machine and just kept answering the questions. I had the printer up in about 1 minute doing a print test. For me that was fast. That was the last thing that I had to do. If this part sounds rather simple that is because it was. There might be one trick you have to perform. Not sure why, but I have been informed that inorder to get the icon to show up in Windows to map the printer you have to go to /etc/samba/smb.conf file. Open it with an editor, then without doing anything, just save it. Then exit and go back to the Windows machine and the printer icon should show up. Try that if have trouble.

    Helpful Links:

    Official Samba Website
    Official Samba Troubleshooting Tree


    Other tutorials in this Section:

  3. The Gnome Applet Collection: The Good, the Bad, the Ugly.LM 7.2, LM 8.0
  4. MPlayer installation guide for Linux. Download my Gui also.LM 8.1
Decibels

Valid XHTML 1.0!