From D.W.Sciama's The Physical Foundations of General Relativity(Anchor Books, 1969, page15), "In the inertial case we would want to say that inertial forces are exerted, not by space, but by other bodies. If this makes sense, then inertial forces are not fictitious after all, but are just as physical as any other forces. In consequence, Newton's laws of motion would hold in all frames of reference, and the problem of the preferred role of inertial frames would be solved." [My color emphasis}
ether (Webster) 5. in physics, a hypothetical invisible substance postulated (in older theory) as pervading space and serving as the medium for the transmission of light waves and other forms of radiant energy.
ether (Birkhofer) - a super symmetrical medium pervading space and serving as the medium for the transmission of light waves and other forms of radiant energy. The medium is composed of rotating spheres of approximately 1.44e-11 diameter, arranged in body centered layers with opposing angles between all spheres as 45 degrees. Alternate layers spin in opposite directions such that no two spheres with similar direction spins ever touch. The speed of rotation in a vacuum (in or near Earth gravitational field) appears to be on the order of one rotation for every 1.113e-21 second or 8.98e20 rotations in one second.
IF ether as in carrier of light exists, (and to me this is without question), what are some of the ramifications:
From Albert Einstein addresss to University of Leyden, May 5th, 1920, Ether and the Theory of Relativity,"Generalising we must say this: There inay be supposed to be extended physical objects to which the idea of motion cannot be applied. They may not be thought of as consisting of particles which allow themselves to be separately tracked through time. In Minkowski's idiom this is expressed as follows: Not every extended conformation in the four-dimensional world can be regarded as composed of worldthreads. The special theory of relativity forbids us to assume the ether to consist of particles observable through time, but the hypothesis of ether in itself in conflict with the special theory of relativity. Only we must be on our guard against ascribing a state of motion to the ether" and Einstein concludes:
"Recapitulating, we may say that according to the general theory of relativity space is endowed with physical qualities; in this sense, therefore, there exists an ether. According to the general theory of relativity space without ether is unthinkable; for in such space there not only wonld be no propagation of light, but also no possibility of existence for standards of space and time (measuring-rods and clocks), nor therefore any space-time intervals in the physical sense. But this ether may not be thought of as endowed with the quality characteristic of ponderable media, as consisting of parts which may be tracked through time. The idea of motion may not be applied to it."
This denial of the innate motion of ether, aka, carrier of electromagetic wave energy, as well as the rejection of rotation in the parameters for defining Special theory were done as a judgment call on the part of the investigator without proof of validity. Out of this oversight, Newton's laws (Einstein refers to as hypotheses) of Space and Time absolutism were inappropriately dismissed. As stated above, even Einstein knew that should ether, aka carrier, exist, Special theory would be on shaky ground if not altogether dismissed. Sciama states no less, "In consequence, Newton's laws of motion would hold in all frames of reference, and the problem of the preferred role of inertial frames would be solved."
Birkhofer, September 7, 1998
Last revised: February 05, 2004.
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