Annotated Bibliography of Research on International Students in the U.S.

This annotated bibliography was compiled by Kristin Tamblyn, in cooperation with David Comp of the University of Chicago, as a potential research resource for NAFSA: Association for International Educators. The 559 empirical articles and dissertations from as early as 1974 are organized alphabetically and most are accompanied with abstracts. Some of the articles focus on specific ethnic groups while others generalize to international students as a whole. The bibliography is still a work-in-progress and will be added to at a later time. See the end of the bibliography for suggestions for further research, based on this review. Please contact Ms. Tamblyn at for publication rights.



Abadi, J.M. (2000) Satisfaction with Oklahoma State University among selected groups of international students. Dissertation Abstracts International, 60 (8-A), 2821.

 The literature revealed that many international higher education students return to their countries with negative experiences. However, there was little qualitative research that was done in this area that can elicit from international students their views and suggestions. The primary purpose of this study was to discover to what extent Oklahoman State University (OSU) international students from selected countries were satisfied in their academic, social, personal, and financial experiences. Six research questions were developed to form a detailed interview guide to cover these four areas. In addition, demographic characteristics were discussed and the overall picture of their evaluation was reported as perceived by each participant. This study utilized the face-to-face semi-structured interview technique to collect data. Because of the qualitative nature of this study, the sample included only 35 international students from ten different countries. The collected data were recorded, transcribed, sorted, and analyzed to form trends of the majority in each aspect of their experiences at OSU. The major conclusions of this study were: (1) Satisfaction of the participants was the most in their academic experience at OSU (64%). (2) Fifty-five of the participants were generally satisfied with their financial situation at OSU. (3) Forty-two of the participants appeared to express an overall satisfaction with their personal experience at OSU. (4) Only 36 percent of the participants were satisfied with their overall social life. Combining the four areas of concern in this study, approximately 51% of the participants indicated satisfaction, 29% have mixed, or undecided, feelings, and 20% expressed some level of dissatisfaction with their overall educational experience at OSU. Sixty percent of participants' satisfaction with OSU increased with time. Female students were more emotional and more financially secure than males. Some of the recommendations included the following: (1) Each department should appoint an adviser for international students to guide and help them in all aspects. (2) Advisers need to increase their office hours and have closer relationships with students. (3) OSU should organize more activities that foster a better climate of international awareness and understanding between American and international students such as home visits and host family programs. (4) The International Student Service office (ISS) should implement suggestions such as the need to include more international students and make some adjustments to the orientation program. (5) Periodic evaluations of international students satisfaction can help maintain and increase that satisfaction. (6) Library and computer labs need a continuous effort of improving and updating their resources to provide a more satisfactory educational experience for all students. [PsycINFO]


Abbassi, A. (1999) Culture and anxiety: A cross-cultural study. Dissertation Abstracts International, 59 (11-A), 4065.

 By measuring interactions among and between anxiety and the independent variables of country of origin, gender, level of education, and age, this study attempted to gain insight into how students from different countries experience anxiety on a U.S. college campus. It was assumed that students with different countries of origin experienced different levels of anxiety. Participants in this study were 158 international students from Thailand, Taiwan, Japan and Korea enrolled in classes designed for international students on the campus of a large metropolitan university in the Southwest. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used, and the subjects evaluated themselves on how they felt at the moment (form Y-1) and how they generally feel (form Y-2). Results indicated that there was a high correlation between forms Y-1 and Y-2. Results of the Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and the univariate test (ANOVA) indicated that the gender and level of education of the subjects made no significant difference. However, when it came to country of origin, there were significant differences between two of the cultural groups and respective anxiety level. Findings also support a positive correlation between age and anxiety levels, with the youngest participants having the lowest anxiety levels. [PsycINFO]


Abboushi, L.M. (1984) Motivational and attitudinal influences which contribute to achievement in English language study among international students. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 44 (8-A), 2391-2392.


Abdalla, S.E., & Gibson, J.T. (1984) The relationship of exposure to American culture on the attitude of Libyan nationals toward the role of women in the workforce. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 9 (3), 294-302. 

Administered a questionnaire on attitudes toward women's participation in the labor force to 53 male and 47 female Libyan nationals who were studying at US universities or married to such students. Females were significantly more likely than males to endorse "modern" work roles for women, while males tended to endorse "traditional" roles for women that involved homemaking and childrearing. The percentage of female Ss endorsing modern attitudes increased with their level of education. However, there was no relationship between length of stay in the US and attitudes. This result may reflect a rejection of American attitudes and values or the strength of the traditional values of Arab culture. It is suggested that the more modern values of educated Arab women may result in conflicts between men and women and between more and less educated women. [PsycINFO]


Abu-Ein, M.M. (1995) A study of the adjustment problems of international students at Texas Southern University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 55 (8-A), 2319. 

The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze the adjustment problems encountered by international students enrolled at Texas Southern University. The study also attempted to determine if there were significant differences in the adjustment problems among respondents in the various variables and sub-groups identified. The following demographic data were treated as independent variables: age, sex, geographical location, marital status, study, duration of stay in the United States, work experience, academic classification, financial sponsorship, and social interaction. Four hundred sixteen international students were the subjects of this study. This included 226 students from Africa, 115 students from Asia, 39 students from the Middle East, and 36 students from other countries The instrument chosen for the survey was The Michigan International Students Problem Inventory (MISPI) developed by John W. Porter in 1962 and revised in 1977. Ten null hypotheses were tested. Significance was determined by the one-way analysis of variance and Tukey procedures. The present study showed that the most troublesome adjustment problems encountered by the international students were financial aid, placement services and social-personal, respectively ranking first, second, and third. The four identified geographical location students experienced different adjustment problems. Specifically, African students encountered more difficulties in total adjustment and in more problem areas than the other groups. Asian students expressed the greatest difficulties in the English language area. Middle-Eastern students expressed the fewest difficulties in the financial aid and English language areas. Students who were self-supported had more problems than students who were financially supported by their families in the orientation services, financial aid, and placement services. Also, the study showed that students who were supported by their families experienced more difficulties. [PsycINFO]


Abu-Hilal, M.M. (1987) Foreign students' interaction, satisfaction, and attitudes toward certain aspects of the American Culture: A case of Arab students in Southern California. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (12-A, Pt 1), 4307.


Achalu, O.E. (1983) Prevalence of drug use among Nigerian students in selected American universities. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (7-A), 2241.


Achalu, O.E., & Duncan, D.F. (1984) Drug taking by Nigerian students in American universities: Prevalences for four commonly used drugs. International Journal of the Addictions, 19 (3), 253-263. 

Administered a standardized-item survey of drug taking to 239 Nigerian students attending 3 American universities. Results show that alcohol was the most widely used drug (64%), followed by tobacco (31.8%), cannabis (13.9%), and amphetamine and other stimulants (5.3%). Differences were found between males and females, and among age groups and college levels. Levels of drug taking were high but no higher than those commonly reported for US college students. [PsycINFO]


Addou, I.H. (1990) The relationship between selected status factors and certain educational difficulties of a sample of male Arab students in five selected universities. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 50 (7-A), 1941-1942.


Adebayo, A., & Nassif, F. (1985, Spring-Summer) Opinions regarding abortion among male Nigerian undergraduate students in the United States. Social Biology, 32 (1-2), 132-135. 

Examined opinions regarding abortion among 117 Nigerian undergraduates (aged 19-43 yrs) attending American colleges and universities. Data indicate that 64.1% of the Ss were against abortion, 18.8% endorsed abortion, and 17.1% were uncertain. Attitudes toward abortion were found to be related to the number and sex of children, marital status, religious preference, and opinion about the present population of Nigeria. [PsycINFO]


Adelegan, F.O., & Parks, D.J. (1985) Problems of transition for African students in an American university. Journal of College Student Personnel, 26 (6), 504-508. 

Interviewed 33 Black East African, Black West African, and Arabic North African students (average age 30.12 yrs) at a US university about demographic information and transition problems. Ss had been in the US an average of 3.91 yrs. Findings indicate that Ss were straddling 2 cultures, reluctantly relinquishing one and adaptively confronting the other. Older, married, and Black Ss expressed more difficulty with transition. [PsycINFO]


Adeyanju, M., Tricker, R., & Spencer, R. (1989, 1990) Comparison of health status of international and American university students: Implications for health education. International Quarterly of Community Health Education, 10 (2), 145-166. 

Examined the differences between a sample of 195 male and 112 female international and 59 male and 180 female American university students relative to their self-perceived health status, health attitudes, behaviors, and locus of control. Results indicate that sociocultural (external) and self-perceived (internal) stressors may influence both groups' health status and care. American Ss experienced more common minor stress-related illnesses/ailments than did international Ss. Both groups indicated they functioned more from an internal health locus of control. Healthiest and poorest wellness attitudes were reported by the international male and American male Ss respectively. No observed differences were noticed on the groups' wellness behaviors. [PsycINFO]


Agunloye, K.J. (1984) A cross-cultural analysis of Nigerian students in the United States in the realm of marriage, conception, and pregnancy. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 44 (10-A), 2979-2980.


Ahmadian, A. (1983) A study of academic, personal, social and financial satisfactions of international students at North Texas State University. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 44 (5-A), 1251.


Ahmed, M.K. (1985) Satisfaction with college among selected groups of international students. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (11-A), 3286.


Akinniyi, G.O. (1992) The effect of foreign students' perceptions of their relationship with the international office personnel. College Student Journal, 26 (2), 215-222. 

Examined the effect of foreign students' perceptions of their relationship with their university's international office personnel on the foreign students' reluctance or willingness to use the services provided by the international office. 12 foreign students and 4 personnel in a Midwestern university were given a structured interview to determine the nature of the 6 services provided by the international office. Results indicated that the 6 areas of services provided by the international students office were greatly underused by the foreign students. In addition to perceived cultural differences, students' perception of their relationship with the international office personnel was a major factor in their attitude toward the use of the services provided by the office. [PsycINFO]


Akpakpan, B.A. (1983) International student perceptions of American higher education. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (9-A), 2836-2837.


Al-Base, N.F. (1987) Perceptions of Western Michigan University international students regarding seeking personal counseling. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 48 (3-A), 561-562.


Al-Bishr, M.S. (1994) Communication among Saudi Arabian students studying in the United States during the time of the 1990-1991 Gulf crisis: An examination of perceived communication effectiveness. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 54(8-A), 2794.


Alexander, M.A., & Shaw, E. (1991) International students at a college of nursing: Concerns and coping. Journal of American College Health, 39 (5), 245-247. 

Ethnographic interviews with 16 international students at a US university produced understanding of Ss' domains of culture, concerns, and coping strategies in the new environment. Intervention activities that evolved from Ss' suggestions during interviews included developing a handbook for potential foreign students and training volunteers to act as student peer mentors for incoming students. [PsycINFO]


Alfauzan, A.M. (1993) The impact of American culture on the attitudes of Saudi Arabian students in the United States toward women's participation in the labor force in Saudi Arabia. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 53 (10-A), 3697.


Al-Harethi, Z.O. (1986) A study of attitudes and attitude change of Saudi students in the United States toward some social issues. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (1-B), 428.


Ali, M.S. (1992) A study to identify and analyze the perceived nature and causes of the English language-based problems and the coping strategies of the Indonesian and Malaysian students studying in an American university. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 53 (6-A), 1853.


Alivand-Farsi, I. (1981) Leadership personality and political culture of Iranian university students in the U.S. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 41 (9-A), 4156.



Al-Janobi, A.H. (1985) The perceptions of Saudi Arabian students in the U.S.A. to their General Secondary Education Certificate examinations and some relationships to selected demographic variables. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (7-A), 2034.



Al-Mehawes, M.A. (1984) Saudi Arabian graduate returnees: Their readjustment, stress and coping to adapt and re-integrate into Saudi Arabia. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (2-A), 422.


Al-Mekhlafi, A.A. (1999) A qualitative study of the social and learning experiences of two Arab LEP students in an American school: A sociocultural perspective. Dissertation Abstracts International, 59 (10-A), 3718.

Arab international transient students come to the U.S. in great numbers. Some of them come with some literacy experience while others come at a very young age and, thus, have no formal literacy experience in their native countries. Similarly, the majority of these students join American public schools with very little or no English proficiency. However, they are placed in classes according to their ages with native speaking students long before they develop the necessary linguistic abilities. They, therefore, encounter social and learning challenges. In addition, and more importantly, during their temporary stay in the U.S., they undergo strong acculturation and socialization processes. Consequently, these students develop certain attitudes, conceptions, and perceptions towards certain realities around them in school or in the society at large. Such attitudes, conceptions, and perceptions are in many cases different from those that would have been developed had these students not come to the U.S. Eventually, these students will return to their native countries taking with them what they have constructed during their stay in the U.S. When they return to their country, they will have to readjust to the classroom rules there. This could have certain psychological impacts on the schooling experiences of such students. Thus, the current study was a qualitative investigation of the social and learning experiences of two LEP Arab international transient students. The researcher presented a detailed picture of two learning environments where the focal students spent most of their school time (an ESL classroom and a mainstream classroom). In addition, the researcher investigated the place and the role of the focal students' culture in the school and in the social and learning experiences of the focal students. Special attention was focused on certain salient behaviors that were displayed by the focal students and their teachers and the prospective impact of such behaviors when the focal students return to their country. The researcher adopted sociocultural and social interaction approaches along with ethnographic research tools to depict a holistic picture of the social and learning experiences of the focal students in the above classrooms in an elementary school in north Florida. [PsycINFO]


Al-Mubarak, A.H. (2000) Adjustment problems, coping methods, and choice of helpers of international students attending a large Pennsylvania university. Dissertation Abstracts International, 61 (1-A), 94.

The purpose of this study was to determine the adjustment problems, coping methods, and choice of helpers of international students attending a large Pennsylvania university (main campus). It also proposed to determine when these problems are encountered and what facilities and services the students suggest the university should consider providing. The study utilized a questionnaire, International Student Problems Checklist (ISPC), revised and developed by the researcher to collect the data. ISPC was derived from the Yeung (1980) and Wong (1991) questionnaire, Foreign Student Problems Checklist. Of the total sample, 261 students (64.60%) responded: 100 females and 161 males. This study answered six research questions and tested ten null hypotheses. The results indicated that most international students encounter adjustment problems in these areas: communication and language, social and cultural, psychological and personal, health, housing and food. There were significant differences among international students from different geographical regions based on the number of reported problems. Africa reported the highest number of problems in the following areas: academic, social and cultural, financial, and housing and food. Asia reported the highest number in the psychological and personal problem area. Latin American students reported more problems than other regions in communication and language. International students from the Middle East reported the highest number of problems in international student advising. Most international students (90%) encounter adjustment problems in the first year. Gender, age, language of instruction in high school (English/not English), and having/not having children were not significant variables for international students in adjusting to the U.S. International students with any of the following variables reported the most adjustment problems: studying at master's level, living in the U.S. two years or less, or married. Most students sought help from a friend, school/office or classmate, teacher/instructor/professor/faculty member, family/family member, or advisor (in order of preference) when they experienced adjustment problems. The study made practical recommendations for services as well as for further research studies. [PsycINFO]


Al-Mubarak, K.A., & Adamchak, D.J. (1994, Fall-Winter) Fertility attitudes and behavior of Saudi Arabian students enrolled in U.S. universities. Social Biology, 41 (3-4), 267-273. 

Examined the relationship between fertility attitudes and behavior and background characteristics of 279 surveyed male Saudi Arabian university students enrolled in US institutions. Specifically, fertility attitudes and behavior were correlated with age, religiosity, education, income, length of stay in the US, and wife's age and education. Results show a highly significant effect of religiosity as a major positive determinant of fertility attitudes. However, the major determinant of fertility behavior, the number of children respondents had, was the wife's education, which was negatively related with family size. [PsycINFO]


Alreshoud, A., & Koeske, G.F. (1997) Arab students' attitudes toward and amount of social contact with Americans: A causal process analysis of cross-sectional data. Journal of Social Psychology, 137 (2), 235-246.

Assessed the plausibility of 2 causal orderings for the expected positive relationship: attitudes toward Americans affect the amount to social contact Arab students have with Americans and the greater amount of social contact with Americans, the more favorable the attitudes of Arab students toward Americans. Ss were male 18-42 yr old Saudi Arabian students attending an American university. A causal process analysis and path analysis show a desire for contact significantly mediated the relationship between attitude and contact, consistent with an attitude-to-contact causal direction and social-psychological approaches that focus on the impact of attitudes on behavior. Social contact, however, was not significantly mediated by understanding of the host country. [PsycINFO]


Al-Salim, M.H. (1985) The impact of college on the development and social attitude of undergraduate Arab students. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (7-A), 1989.



Alsamarraie, F.J. (1984) The impact of the U.S. environment on the Iraqi student. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 44 (8-A), 2409.



Al-Shuwaikjat, A.M. (1985) Language attitudes of Saudi Arabian graduate students in the U.S.: An introduction to the study of differentials of language attitudes of intellectual elites. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (1-A), 116.


Alwasilah, A.C. (1992) Cultural transfer in communication: A qualitative study of Indonesian students in U.S. academic settings. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 52 (9-A), 3205.


Amoh, K.O. (1985) Newly arrived foreign students at a U.S. university: Their adjustment difficulties and coping strategies. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (8-A), 2315.



Amuzu-Kpeglo, A.K. (1985) The relevance and adequacy of Ohio University programs for graduate and senior students from Africa. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (5-A), 1214.


Anderson, T.R., & Myer, T.E. (1985) Presenting problems, counselor contacts, and "no shows": International and American college students. Journal of College Student Personnel, 26 (6), 500-503. 

Investigated the need for specialized services for international students by having 22 counselors in a doctoral program examine the files of 40 international (mean age 22.3 yrs) and 40 US students (mean age 24.3 yrs) who used university counseling services. Findings indicate that both groups entered counseling with similar concerns. International Ss failed to keep 2nd appointments at a higher rate (33%) than did US Ss. [PsycINFO]


Andrews, L.A. (1987) Images of the pastor-as-leader of North American-born and foreign-born students in three seminaries. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (9-A), 3325-3326.


Andrews, T.L. (2000) The roles of training, culture distance, and personality in the adjustment, performance, and social ability of international students in the United States. Dissertation Abstracts International, 60 (11-B), 5761.

The purposes of this study were (a) to investigate the effectiveness of cross-cultural training methods and (b) to examine the roles of home/host culture distance and personality on the adjustment, performance, and social ability of international students. For phase one of the study, fifty-one new international students participated in the experimental training sessions. Behavior modeling and documentary/informational training methods in combination were more effective than using the documentary/informational method alone in terms of building culture knowledge. For the second phase, fifty-five new international students (32 of whom overlapped with the phase one participants) completed an initial survey, which assessed culture distance and some aspects of personality, and a five-month follow-up survey, which assessed adjustment, performance, and social ability. Culture distance and personality at time one were found to predict the adjustment and the social ability of international students in the U.S. five months later. [PsycINFO]


Anthony, K.H. (1982) International House: Home away from home? [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (10-A), 4183.



Appiah, N.K. (1993) Perceptions of African students about their pre-college science education programs in Africa and a study of their attitudes toward science. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 53 (9-A), 3160.




Aseeri, A.S. (1986) The prediction of foreign graduate students' academic achievement at Michigan State University. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (7-A), 1871.


Atef-Vahid, M. (1989) Acculturation, psychological differentiation, and personality among Iranian student sojourners. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 49 (9-B), 3992.


Athar, A.N. (1980) A study of career motivation of male graduate students from five selected foreign countries. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 41 (4-A), 1419.


Aubrey, R. (1991) International students on campus: A challenge for counselors, medical providers, and clinicians. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 62 (1), 20-33. 

Most foreign students seeking help focus on academic issues even if their problems are not primarily academic. Campus personnel likely to have early contact with these students include advisors and primary medical care providers. International students rarely come to a mental health service on their own. Therefore, unless clinicians establish close teamwork with all key members of the university community, they are likely to see few foreign students, and those they do see are likely to be in crisis. Common manifestations of academic and nonacademic stress are identified, preventive interventions are discussed, modifications in treatment technique are outlined, and a model for learning key aspects of an unfamiliar culture is presented. [PsycINFO]


Aydin, F. (1997) Intercultural adjustment as predicted by attachment and personality variables. Dissertation Abstracts International, 57 (10-B), 6554. 

An experience of cultural transition can be a very emotionally taxing experience, affecting various aspects of one's life and functioning. It involves the redefinition of one's self-concept and requires certain coping and relational skills in order to be accomplished successfully. The intent of this study was to evaluate the predictive potential of several attachment-related and personality variables held to be significant in determining one's adjustment to a new country. The quality of one's early relationship with parents, one's adult attachment style, a series of personality variables, as well as the availability of social support, history of international travel/living, English proficiency and demographic factors were examined. The subjects were 82 first year international graduate students, 44 males and 38 females. They were first assessed for predictive factors during the first month of their arrival into the United States. The second phase, carried out five months into their stay, involved the examination of the subjects' adjustment in three areas: academic, personal/emotional, and social adjustment. The data analyses revealed a number of significant findings. Avoidant attachment style was found to correlate negatively with adjustment in all 3 areas of functioning. Father's Care correlated positively with personal/emotional and social adjustment, and both Mother and Father's Over-Protection correlated negatively with academic and personal/emotional adjustment. Eight of the personality variables were found to be significantly correlated with adjustment and could be seen as adaptive traits for international sojourners within the United States culture: Initiative, Tolerance, Trust in people, Expectations, Social Adaptability, Personal Control, Interpersonal Interest, and Risk Taking. Social support was highly correlated with personal/emotional adjustment, and negatively correlated with avoidant attachment style. The strongest predictor variables for adjustment were Tolerance, Father's Care, Personal Control, and Trust in People. The findings suggest that one's early relationship with parents and the resulting attachment style do have a significant impact on the experience of separation from one's country and one's ability to adapt to a new cultural environment. A caring and respectful early environment can allow for the development of a secure attachment style along with certain personality characteristics, i.e. tolerance, personal control, and trust in people which in their turn seem to allow individuals to reach out and establish the bonds and structures necessary to maintain themselves within a new cultural environment. [PsycINFO]


Ayers, J.B., & Peters, R.M. (1977, Summer) Predictive validity of the Test of English as a Foreign Language for Asian graduate students in engineering, chemistry, or mathematics. Educational & Psychological Measurement, 37 (2), 461-463. 

The validity of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) was examined in relation to prediction of success of 50 male Asian students who had completed master's programs in engineering, chemistry, or mathematics. A significant correlation was obtained between scores from the TOEFL and overall GPA. A regression equation using scores from the TOEFL and Verbal section of the Graduate Record Examination was developed. [PsycINFO]


Bagley, C.A., & Copeland, E.J. (1994) African and African American graduate students' racial identity and personal problem-solving strategies. Journal of Counseling & Development, 73 (2), 167-171. 

Compared the coping skills and racial identity of 34 African and 48 African-American graduate students using the Racial Identity Attitude Scale (RIAS) and the Problem-Solving Inventory. Significant differences were found in racial identity between Africans and African-Americans on the preencounter and internalization scales of the RIAS. There was also an acculturation effect based on length of time in the US for African Ss. After 3.5 yrs in the US, African Ss more frequently endorsed the EuroAmerican values of the dominant culture and devalued their own race. There were no differences in coping strategies between African and African-American Ss. [PsycINFO]


Barratt, M.F. (1994) International undergraduate student adjustment in a community as a function of motivation, self-esteem, interpersonal relationships, participation in activities, and English language skills. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 54 (12-A), 4365.


Barratt, M.F., & Huba, M.E. (1994) Factors related to international undergraduate student adjustment in an American community. College Student Journal, 28 (4), 422-436. 

170 international undergraduates completed a mail survey assessing motivation, self-esteem, interpersonal relationships, participation in activities, English language skills, and community adjustment. Ss' evaluation of their experience with the people in their new community differed by region of origin and was positively correlated with oral English language skills. Ss' experiences improved as their interest and success in interpersonal relationships with Americans and their written and oral English language skills increased. Interpersonal relationships were positively correlated with current self-esteem and English language skills; perceived English language skills were also related to perceived self-esteem. [PsycINFO]


Basolene, K.M. (1993) Aspirations and values of African and Asian theological students: A case study in the United States of America. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 53 (7-A), 2276.



Beane, B.A. (1985) A model for foreign student retention and attrition: A case study of SUNY-Buffalo. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (3-A), 623.


Bengston, B., & Baldwin, C. (1993) The international student: Female circumcision issues. Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development, 21 (3), 168-173. 

Describes female circumcision and counseling issues that may arise when treating women from other cultures who have undergone this procedure. Issues addressed include reasons for circumcision, status of women, cultural tradition, and attitudes about sexuality. Psychological and sexual reactions to circumcision include fear of sex, promiscuity, and loss of self-esteem. The impact of a woman's circumcision on social interactions when she travels to other countries is addressed. Counseling strategies recommended include referral to a physician and education about sexuality, female genital anatomy, and the effects of trauma due to circumcision. It may be appropriate to use counseling strategies similar to those used for a victim of sexual assault or for a woman grieving the loss of a female body part as in mastectomy. Cognitive restructuring and correcting negative self-concept may be beneficial. [PsycINFO]


Bennett, D. (2002) Effects of electronic communication on culture shock of spouses of international students. Dissertation Abstracts International, 63 (6-A), 2208. 

Culture shock is a serious problem for spouses of international students. This recollection study looked at use of telephone, web phone, email, chat, and online newspapers as predictors for culture shock. Fifteen spouses of international students at a mid-Atlantic university were interviewed with the same rated questions asking them to recall how they felt: When they first arrived in the United States, during their first six months here, during their second six months here, during their third six months here, and at the time of the interview. For the same time periods, they were also asked how many times a week they used telephone, web phone, email, chat, and online newspapers from back home. In addition, three open-ended questions were asked for each time period to provide explanations of the quantitative data. Analyses of variance were conducted to determine whether participants' feelings related to culture shock (loneliness and isolation, missing family and people of national origin, not belonging here, sadness because ways of doing things here are not familiar) changed over time. Tukey tests were then used to determine where the significant changes occurred. Pearson Correlations and Chi-squares were computed to determine relationships between the modes of electronic communication and feelings related to culture shock. Multiple stepwise regressions were conducted to determine if any of the communication modes was a predictor for culture shock. Data were reported in tables and figures. Feelings related to culture shock did improve over time. There were significant findings for phone, web phone, chat, and email. Recommendations included orienting new students and their spouses to electronic communication modes available, providing access to electronic communication for spouses, and providing a web board with information for spouses of international students. Suggestions for further research included a controlled study with spouses using various modes of communication, comparison of levels of culture shock among various groups-sex, age, country of origin, for example-and an investigation as to why usage of various modes of electronic communication decreased. [PsycINFO]


Beykont, Z.F., & Daiute, C. (2002) Inclusiveness in Higher Education Courses: International Student Perspectives. Equity & Excellence in Education, 35 (1), 35-42. 


Investigated international graduate students’ perspectives on higher education classes in their native countries and the United States, examining classroom interaction and student and professor roles. Students recommended that higher education faculty establish greater inclusiveness for international students that would acknowledge differences in student thinking, writing, and participation; encourage participation by all students; and offer culturally relevant education. [ERIC]


Bhatt, A.K., & Fairchild, H.H. (1984) Values of convergence for Indian students in the United States. Psychological Reports, 55 (2), 446. 

 Examined the relationship between length of stay in the US, length of stay in India, and the ratio between these 2 variables on the ratings and rankings made by 53 18-34 yr old Indian students of C. Morris's (1956) 13 "Ways to Live." Results show that length of time in the US was correlated with the endorsement of typically American values. The most highly preferred concept was "to integrate action, enjoyment, and contemplation." Another important concept was "chance adventuresome deeds." [PsycINFO]


Bih, H. (1992) The meaning of objects in environmental transitions: Experiences of Chinese students in the United States. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 12 (2), 135-147. 

 14 Chinese postgraduate students were interviewed one semester after their arrival in New York City. The meanings they attached to objects, and how the meanings of objects changed during the students' adaptation to their new environment, are discussed. The discussion is placed in the context of person-object relationships, and it is emphasized that objects can both reflect and actively affect an individual's feelings and emotion. [PsycINFO]


Bingi, R.B. (1995) International students' perceptions of counselor credibility and willingness to self-disclose as a function of the counselor's interpersonal style. Dissertation Abstracts International, 55 (12-A), 3746. 

 Of late, much attention has been focused on the choice of an appropriate counseling theory to be successfully applied with the Asian students. Counseling practices with Chinese and Indian students (which constitute the Asian student subject population for the present study) in the United States and in their home countries show that counseling professionals have different views. Despite controversies, some professionals conclude that cognitive-behavioral theories are more appropriate than any other theories with these students, while some others view that humanistic and eclectic theories could be better applied. Counseling practices in these students' countries stress the applicability of psychoanalytic and humanistic theories in counseling. However, some researchers working with mainstream clients in the United States claim that counseling is effective irrespective of the counseling theory being applied. With the question of finding an appropriate theory to use with Asian international students unanswered, the experimenter asked if new directions of inquiry might shed light on how to identify a better way to counsel this student constituency. This new direction looked at factors in the counseling that are not theory specific. The purpose of the present study is to determine if the counselor's interpersonal style is one of the significant factors operative in effective counseling. Using Kiesler's (1983) Interpersonal Theory and Circle measures, Chinese and Indian international students' preferences (measured by the students' scores on counselor credibility and willingness to self-disclose) for counselor's interpersonal style were investigated. In addition, the interaction of the students' level of cultural adaptation with their preferences for the counselor's interpersonal style was measured. Results showed a nonsignificant effect for the level of cultural adaptation and preference for a counselor's interpersonal style, indicating that irrespective of the... [PsycINFO]


Bleichmar, A.P. (1998) Cross-cultural training for foreign students in the context of the international student office. Dissertation Abstracts International, 59 (4-B), 1894.

 This qualitative study examined the needs of international student offices in the area of cross-cultural training in order to design a training program that facilitates the cultural adaptation of foreign students. The literature on cross-cultural adaptation recognizes three specific skill types that foreign students need to be interculturally effective: skills that facilitate the maintenance of self, skills that promote relationships with host nationals, and cognitive skills. Researchers have developed and studied cognitive and experimental training programs to facilitate adaptation. International student offices are not fully utilizing the training programs available to assist foreign students. Eight administrators working for five international student offices were interviewed for this research. The administrators participated in semi-structured interviews aimed at determining the needs and functioning of their offices. The subjects were interviewed individually for approximately one to one-and-half hours about the nature of their work and the activities provided by their offices. The administrators also completed a single-page questionnaire of general information and quantitative data. The data from the interviews and written responses was thematically analyzed. Eight themes emerged which summarize the needs and activities of the international student offices: Mission; Student Needs; Timing; Activities; Marketing; University; Personality; and Ideas and Attitudes. A comparison of the activities of the offices with the literature on cross-cultural training indicates that, while the activities of the offices facilitate foreign student adaptation, international student offices are not fully utilizing the current knowledge on cross-cultural adaptation. The training program, designed based on the findings of this study, addresses both the research conclusions on cross-cultural adjustment and the specific needs of international student offices. Previous researchers and cross-cultural trainers have developed comprehensive programs designed to be administered over periods lasting several days or weeks. The program presented here is based on the work of several researchers, but is designed in a consolidated fashion in order to meet the time and financial constraints of the university setting. This program seeks to develop the skills that facilitate acculturation, and also to give students the tools to continue on their own with the support of the international student office. [PsycINFO]


Boakari, F.M. (1984) The nationality group in cross-cultural adjustment: The case of Koreans and Taiwanese at the University of Iowa. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 44 (12-A), 3605-3606.



Boateng, F.A. (1977) The Ghanaian student in American universities: Selected attitudes and perceptions. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 38 (3-A), 131-1132.


Bochner, S., Buker, E.A., & McLeod, B.M. (1976) Communication patterns in an international student dormitory: A modification of the small world method. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 6 (3), 275-290. 

S. Milgram's "small world" method (1967) was modified to trace communication patterns in an international student dormitory containing 500 residents from 38 countries. 18 residents served as "starters" for chain-booklets that circulated through the dormitory from friend to friend. Social networks were inferred from the circulation pattern of booklets. 16 chains progressed beyond their respective starters, and a total of 86 transactions were recorded. Four determinants of social relations were investigated: culture similarity, sex, organizational affiliation, and residential propinquity. The circulation pattern of the booklets showed that culture similarity was a major determinant of social interaction among the residents. The other main determinant was sex similarity. Organizational affiliation was less important, and proximity played only a minor role in determining communication patterns. [PsycINFO]


Bochner, S., Lin, A., & McLeod, B.M. (1979) Cross-cultural contact and the development of an international perspective. Journal of Social Psychology, 107 (1), 29-41. 

Tested the hypothesis that participants of multicultural educational programs develop an internationally minded orientation. 90 alumni of an explicitly structured multicultural program and 90 alumni of an institution with an implicit multicultural ambience were asked to respond to a questionnaire on a topic with an international perspective. Results confirm the hypothesis; however, the effect of training was confounded with prior residence abroad. [PsycINFO]


Bochner, S., Lin, A., & McLeod, B.M. (1980) Anticipated role conflict of returning overseas students. Journal of Social Psychology, 110 (2), 265-272. 

At the conclusion of their overseas academic sojourn and immediately prior to reentry, 15 Asian graduate students attending the University of Hawaii were asked to anticipate 3 events that would make them happy, and 3 events that would make them unhappy after their return. Results indicate that 89% of the statements were about interpersonal events and referred to job, peer group, and family relations. Two indices indicated a substantial amount of anticipated role conflict in the job and peer domains: an almost equal ratio of positive to negative statements, and the high proportion (53%) of Ss who simultaneously expressed both positive and negative expectations in each of these 2 areas. [PsycINFO]


Bochner, S., McLeod, B.M., & Lin, A. (1977) Friendship patterns of overseas students: A functional model. International Journal of Psychology, 12 (4), 277-294. 

Studied 30 foreign students at the University of Hawaii (6 each from Japan, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Thailand) and 6 host national (American) students, balanced for sex. Ss identified their 5 best friends, and the 5 people with whom they spend most of their time. Ss were then presented with a list of 15 activities and identified a preferred companion for each of the situations. The data were used to test a functional model of the academic sojourn, which predicts that foreign students will belong to 3 social networks, in descending order of salience: (a) a conational network whose function is to affirm and express the culture of origin; (b) a network with host nationals, whose function is the instrumental facilitation of academic and professional aspirations; and (c) a multinational network whose main function is recreational. Results confirm the existence, predicted differential function, and salience hierarchy of these 3 social networks and reconcile previous conflicting reports regarding the social relations of foreign students. (French summary) [PsycINFO]


Boonyawiroj, S. (1983) Adjustment of foreign graduate students: Nine case studies. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 44 (3-A), 643.


Bourne, P.G. (1975) The Chinese student: Acculturation and mental illness. Psychiatry: Journal for the Study of Interpersonal Processes, 38 (3), 269-277. 

Reviews the history of the Chinese student in America and examines the conflicts created by the special role of the Chinese on campus. The types of problems manifested by Chinese students, who sought help from a university student health program, as a result of the stresses caused by currently changing attitudes toward assimilation are examined. The problems of male and female students are considered separately, and 6 brief case examples are presented. [PsycINFO]


Boyer, S.P., & Sedlacek, W.E. (1988) Noncognitive predictors of academic success for international students: A longitudinal study. Journal of College Student Development, 29 (3), 218-223. 

The Noncognitive Questionnaire designed to predict academic success for US minority students, was shown to predict college grades and retention for 248 international students at a large eastern state university. Self-confidence and availability of a strong support person were important predictors of grade point average (GPA) across all semesters studied. Community service and an understanding of racism were also consistently related to persistence. [PsycINFO]


Boyer, S.P., & Sedlacek, W.E. (1989) Noncognitive predictors of counseling center use by international students. Journal of Counseling & Development, 67 (7), 404-407. 

Results of the Non-Cognitive Questionnaire completed by 230 freshman international students at orientation were compared with Ss' use of counseling services over the next 8 semesters. The variables of understanding and ability to deal with racism, preference for long-term goals over short-term goals, and nontraditional ways of acquiring knowledge successfully predicted counseling center use. These variables had also been shown previously to be predictive of academic success for international students by S. P. Boyer and W. E. Sedlacek (see record 1989-13524-001). [PsycINFO]


Bradford, D.E. (1986) Health survey of international students at Kent State University. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (11-B), 3780.


Brinson, J.A., & Kottler, J. (1995) International students in counseling: Some alternative models. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 9 (3), 57-70. 

Examined reasons that international students (ILSs) often do not avail themselves of support services on university campuses. Interviews were conducted with ILSs to learn why many of them often underutilized university counseling centers. Problems encountered by this group include clashes of cultural values, culture shock, family pressures, loneliness, feeling different, and loss of identity; case examples of these problems are included. Based on the interviews, the authors provide outreach strategies that counseling centers can use to expand the delivery of their services to ILSs. [PsycINFO]


Bulhan, H.A. (1978) Reactive identification, alienation, and locus of control among Somali students. Journal of Social Psychology, 104 (1), 69-80. 

The theory of reactive identification formulates 3 reactions of Western-educated Africans to the Euro-American world: (a) Moving Toward, (b) Moving Away, and (c) Moving Against identifications. Three scales corresponding to these patterns were constructed and hypotheses tested by multiple assessments involving 45 Somali students in the US. Ss were also administered Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale, a modified Social Distance Scale, an alienation measure, a survey of activity questionnaire, a democratic data sheet, and the Personal Interview Schedule. Results generally follow the predicted pattern. Moving Toward was not the predominant course of identification. Moving Toward scores were significantly associated with alienation and external control and with activities and attitudes antagonistic to Somali Nationalist, Pan-Africanist, Black Nationalist, and Socialist ideology. Exactly the opposite trend was obtained from Moving Against scores. Moving Away was characterized only by heightened racial awareness. [PsycINFO]


Bulhan, H.A. (1980) Dynamics of cultural in-betweenity: An empirical study. International Journal of Psychology, 15 (2), 105-121. 

The dialectical theory of cultural "in-betweenity" proposes 3 main identification patterns among the Black intelligentsia: capitulation to the dominant culture, revitalization of the indigenous culture, and radicalization of both so as to arrive at a new and higher synthesis. Three scales corresponding to the identification patterns were constructed, and a comparative study was conducted on 2 college samples: 45 Somali students being trained in the US and 57 Somali students being trained in Somalia. Factor analyses suggested the prevalence of distinct ethos, group reference, and self-image within each orientation. Capitalist ethos, elitism, and an inferiority complex seem to be characteristic of capitulation. Traditional ethos, race consciousness, and identity-rumination delineate revitalization. Socialist ethos, class consciousness, and co-optation fears were components of radicalization. The theory and the empirical findings are discussed within the broad historical framework of colonialism and racism. (French abstract) [PsycINFO]


Bu-Salih, R.M. (1985) The attitude toward physical recreation of male Saudi students studying in the United States. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (7-A), 2027-2028.



Bustamante, C.C. (1979) Venezuelan students in the United States: Stereotypes of and attitude changes toward the home and host countries. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 39 (11-B), 5638.



Buys, W.K. (1993) Values and considerations in education-related choices: A descriptive study of PRC Chinese graduate students at a northwest U. S. university. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 53 (12-A), 4234.


Cadieux, R.A., & Wehrly, B. (1986, Winter) Advising and counseling the international student. New Directions for Student Services, 36, 51-63. 

Outlines major concerns of international students and discusses advisor/counselor qualities and roles by which they can be addressed. Major concerns of foreign students include language difficulties, financial problems, demands of the educational system, social and cultural adjustment, and the relevance of academic programs. Addressing these concerns requires that the counselor have cultural awareness and sensitivity, an awareness of the assumptions and values underlying the counseling process as perceived by both counselor and counselee, openness to and respect for different value systems, a tolerance for ambiguity, a willingness to learn, and a genuine concern for people with differing value systems. The major roles of both academic advisors and counselors are as advocates and change agents within the cultural milieus in which foreign students operate. [PsycINFO]


Card, J.J. (1982, Spring) The correspondence between migration intentions and migration behavior: Data from the 1970 cohort of Filipino graduate students in the United States. Population & Environment: Behavioral & Social Issues, 5 (1), 3-25. 

Analyzed data from a longitudinal study of 319 Filipinos who were in graduate school in the US in 1970 to investigate why some Ss who as graduate students intended to return to the Philippines did return, while others failed to do so. Findings indicate no differences between the groups in terms of their migration-related attitudes and motivations as students, or in terms of their perceptions as students of relative economic and career opportunities in the Philippines and US. Instead it was found that Ss in the 2 groups underwent different social experiences in the US that caused the non-corresponders to change their original plans regarding return home. Youth, openness to American culture, and freedom to remain in the US following the period of study were the primary antecedents of the change sequence. [PsycINFO]


Carty Roper, G.R. (1990) Caribbean students coping with the transition to a new culture: The role of age, gender, year in college and academic major. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 51 (4-A), 1162.


Carver, C.S., & Humphries, C. (1981) Havana daydreaming: A study of self-consciousness and the negative reference group among Cuban Americans. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 40 (3), 545-552. 

Reasoned that the Castro government in Cuba represents an important negative reference group for Cuban Americans in the US. Exp I asked 43 Cuban-American undergraduates to give their opinions on issues surrounding the liberalization of relations between Cuba and the US. As expected, opinions were more opposed to such liberalization when an ostensible representative of the Castro government was quoted as favoring it than when no mention was made of the Castro government. Exps II and III (137 Ss) tested the prediction that utilization of negative reference groups would be mediated by dispositional self-consciousness. In Exp II, Ss gave their opinions after favorable opinions had been attributed to officials of the Castro government. Opposition among these Ss was positively correlated with their public self-consciousness but was unrelated to private self-consciousness. Exp III replicated the effect of public self-consciousness when the reference group was salient but yielded an ambiguous effect for an experimental manipulation of self-focus. Findings appear to confirm the role of dispositional self-consciousness in reference-group behavior. Moreover, they appear to suggest that Ss used their opposition to the negative reference group for self-presentational purposes rather than for self-definitional purposes. [PsycINFO]


Celona, J.M. (1982) The perceptions of twenty-five international undergraduates with regard to their stay in selected Massachusetts state colleges. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (4-A), 1057.



Chang, L.Y. (1984) Values, attitudes and modernization: Values and attitudes of Chinese graduate students studying in Pittsburgh. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (2-A), 564-565.

Chang, S. (1991) A study of language learning behaviors of Chinese students at the University of Georgia and the relation of those behaviors to oral proficiency and other factors. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 52 (2-A), 450.


Chang, Y.S. (1981) Differences in personal values and self-disclosure among ethnic student groups. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (6-A), 2570.


Chanler, A.B. (1996) Cultural differences and adjustment to cross-cultural transitions among recently arrived foreign-born students. Dissertation Abstracts International, 57 (3-B), 2145. 

This study examines the relationship between cultural differences and psychological a physical adjustment during cross-cultural transitions. Thirty newly arrived foreign-born students in the New York metropolitan area were separated into 'Near' (Caribbean students, n = 15) and 'Far' groups (Far Eastern students, n = 15) on the basis of geographic proximity to the United States, and subsequently analyzed for differences in acculturation outcomes. Subjects completed questionnaires and interviews which assessed overall culture distance, values differences, social behavior, English language knowledge and use, social contact with Americans, psychological and physical well-being, and school adjustment. T-test comparisons revealed that Near and Far groups differed significantly in overall culture distance from the host culture, and in differences in values as compared to the values system represented by the host culture. Results, however, did not substantiate the notion that culture distance is a consistent predictor of adjustment during cross-cultural transitions. In the current study, greater similarities between the host and acculturating cultures were not associated with better psychological and physical well-being, and superior school adjustment. Pearson correlations demonstrated that greater contact with Americans, better knowledge and more frequent use of English were associated with better mental, physical, and school functioning for members of both Near and Far groups. It was concluded that premigration factors, such as socioeconomic status and predeparture health, are important mediating variables in determining acculturation outcomes. Findings suggest that two distinct acculturation processes, psychological and sociocultural, may have been examined. The Caribbean students struggled with a greater degree of stress and anxiety associated with separating from their country of origin, while the Far Eastern students struggled with learning new social and culturally a… [PsycINFO]


Chao, H. (1999) Self-regulating care behavior and other factors influencing general well-being of Taiwanese students in the United States. Dissertation Abstracts International, 60 (5-B), 2060.

 Leaving home to study abroad is stressful. The purpose of this research was to test a proposed path model, derived from the self-regulation theory (Kuhl, 1992), which explained the relationships among life stress, action-oriented behavior, social support, and personal factors influencing the general well-being of Taiwanese students studying in the United States. The sample consisted of 221 Taiwanese students recruited through postal mailings and personal contacts from colleges and universities in the United States. Data were collected through self-report questionnaires and analyzed using path analysis and multiple regression statistics. The instruments used in this study included the Index of Life Stress, the Index of Social Support, the General Well-Being Schedule, the Action Control Scale, and a demographic sheet. The results of this study showed that the hypothesized relationships associated with life stress, social support, action-oriented behavior, time in the U.S., and general well being were supported by this analysis, which explained 45% of the variance. The model was trimmed based on the 0.05 level of significance criterion. The model identification, an analysis of the decomposition of correlations among variables, showed that the trimmed model was well specified. The findings suggest that life stress and self-regulating care behavior are important influences on the general well-being of Taiwanese students. The implications for nursing practice and theory development are outlined, including assessment and intervention for stress management and enhancing an effective coping style to improve well-being. [PsycINFO]


Che Din, M.S. (1985) Mental health status of Malay students at U.S. colleges and universities. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (8-B), 2681.


Chen, C. (1992) Language proficiency and academic achievement: An ethnographic investigation of language demands and problems confronted by Chinese graduate students functioning in university classrooms. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 53 (5-A), 1413.


Chen, C. (1992) Life stress and psychological adjustment among American, Asian-American, and Asian foreign graduate students: The mediating roles of objective social networks and perceived social support. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 53 (3-A), 755-756.


Chen, G. (1992) Communication adaptability and interaction involvement as predictors of cross-cultural adjustment. Communication Research Reports, 9 (1), 33-41. 

Examined the effects of communication adaptability and interaction involvement on 1 aspect of cross-cultural adjustment (i.e., culture shock) in 142 foreign college students (mean age 27.4 yrs) studying in the US. Significant and positive relationships were observed among communication adaptability, interaction involvement, and the sojourners' ability to cope with social difficulties caused by the host culture. [PsycINFO]


Chen, G. (1993) Self-disclosure and Asian students' abilities to cope with social difficulties in the United States. Journal of Psychology, 127 (6), 603-610. 

Examined the relationships between self-disclosure and the abilities of 129 Asian college students to cope with social difficulties in the US. Ss completed L. R. Wheeless's (1978) General Disclosiveness Scale and the Social Situations Questionnaire. Results show (1) positive relationships between intent, honesty, and valence of self-disclosure and social difficulties and (2) negative relationships between amount and depth of self-disclosure and social difficulties. A 1-way ANOVA on self-disclosure indicated differences among Ss from different nations. Results show the different perceptions of self-disclosure between Eastern and Western societies. [PsycINFO]


Chen, J.R. (1986) Social interactions between Asian students and their American hosts. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (2-A), 421.


Chiodo, J.J., & Tsai, M. (1995) Taiwanese students in American universities: Are they ready for critical thinking? College Student Journal, 29 (3), 374-382. 

Examined the extent to which Taiwanese college students were being taught critical thinking skills (CTS) in secondary schools in Taiwan. 26 Ss (21-33 yrs old) were surveyed and interviewed. All Ss had at least 12 yrs of schooling in Taiwan. Results show that 69.2% of the Ss were not taught CTS in Taiwan. 73% of the students ranked their own CTS at fair, good or very good levels. 20.4% indicated CTS were acquired from a school setting. The remaining responses indicated that Ss learnt these skills from their daily lives, media, friends, parents, jobs, American classrooms or through reading. It is suggested that since the number of Taiwanese students is increasing in the US, insufficient CTS could influence their ability to learn. [PsycINFO]


Chitwood, W.F. (1987) Cultural distance, modernity, and length of stay as factors affecting sojourner student adjustment. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 48 (5-B), 1541.


Chiu, M.L. (1993) The influence of anticipatory fear on foreign student adjustment and response to stress inoculation treatment. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 54 (1-A), 88.


Chiu, M.L. (1995, Winter) The influence of anticipatory fear on foreign student adjustment: An exploratory study. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 19 (1), 1-44. 

Explored the influence of anticipatory fear, both on natural processes of adjustment for 39 Asian foreign students during their 1st academic year in the US, and on the effectiveness of a cross-cultural orientation program based on I. L. Janis's (1985) stress inoculation treatment (SIT). Ss were randomly assigned to a minimal treatment condition or a stress inoculation treatment (SIT) condition and later classified by level of anticipatory fear. A moderate anticipatory fear response was associated with more adaptive outcomes than low and high anticipatory fear responses. Ss with different levels of anticipatory fear differed in their responses to SIT, with the low-fear group showing the clearest signs of benefit. Findings suggest that how a person responds to novelty and uncertainty is a key factor in cross-cultural adjustment. [PsycINFO]


Cho, S. (1989) A cross cultural study of factors that predict stress among international college students. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 50 (1-A), 77-78.


Choe, K.K. (1996) Acculturative stress among Korean students. Dissertation Abstracts International, 57 (3-A), 1011. 

The purpose of the study was to examine the major sources, effects, and symptoms of acculturative stress in Korean-born college students at an American university, and the coping strategies they have found to be effective. A review of the literature outlined the origins of specific concepts, including the emergence of the concept of stress, effects of stress, coping mechanisms, relaxation techniques for coping and acculturative stress in Asian populations in America. The study was undertaken because the current literature does not have any information on acculturative stress in Korean students adapting to life in an American university. Seven male and seven female Korean students currently attending Boston University ranging in age from 21 to 29 years, were interviewed by the researcher. The results of these interviews indicated that acculturative stress stemmed from several sources: (1) A sense of isolation based on lack of language skills, unfamiliarity with cultural norms, and differences in the American educational system. (2) Absence of familial support systems, exacerbated by a sense of pressure to live up to familial and cultural expectations requiring excellent academic performance. (3) A sense of shame incurred by perceived failures in academic or social situations. Stress resulted in somatic symptoms ranging from minor ailments such as headaches to serious medical problems such as ulcers and insomnia. Physical symptoms are more easily accepted but psychological symptoms such as depression and anxiety are acknowledged with reluctance because students have a cultural stigma attached to mental illness. Effective coping strategies found by each participant primarily were based upon two factors: availability of social support systems and the student's personality traits. Community resources, such as the Korean church, provide an environment of shared language and cultural background. Individual personality traits also play a significant role in the student's… [PsycINFO]


Chongolnee, B. (1979) Academic, situational, organismic, and attitudinal factors affecting the academic achievement of foreign graduate students at Iowa State University. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 39 (7-A), 4075.



Christopherson-Choudhry, M.L. (1982) Intercultural self concept and coping behavior: Asian and American Caucasian graduate students. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (5-A), 1473.


Chung, C. (1989) Culture shock among international students in the United States. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 49 (7-A), 1715.


Chunnual, N., & Marsella, A.J. (1975) Convergent and discriminant validation of a traditionalism-modernism attitude questionnaire for Thai exchange students. Journal of Social Psychology, 96 (1), 21-26. 

To examine the convergent and discriminant validity of an attitudinal questionnaire measure of traditionalism-modernism in 38 Thai exchange college students, questionnaire scores were correlated with self and peer measures of traditionalism-modernism and with a measure of "culture-shock." For the latter, it was anticipated that high scores on modernism would inversely correlate with culture-shock scores. Results indicate that the questionnaire measures were positively correlated with self and peer measures at significant levels; however, the relationship was not very substantial. Thus, there appears to be only a tenuous degree of convergent validity for questionnaire measures of traditionalism-modernism. Results further indicate a marginal amount of discriminant validity as measured by the relationship between the traditionalism-modernism questionnaire and the culture-shock questionnaire. Caution is suggested in using unvalidated attitudinal questionnaire measures of traditionalism-modernism, and the need for recognizing the multidimensional rather than unidimensional nature of traditionalism-modernism as a personality characteristic is noted. [PsycINFO]


Clayton, J.B. (1993) Your land, my land: The process of acculturation for four international students in an elementary school setting in the United States. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 54 (2-A), 442.


Colby, B.N. (1987) Well-being: A theoretical program. American Anthropologist, 89 (4), 879-895. 

Administered measures of adaptive potential, authoritarianism, perceived domains of sociocultural stress, and physical symptoms to a multi-cultural sample of 133 foreign-born university students in the US. Correlations indicated that Ss scoring high in adaptive potential showed fewer physical symptoms, conforming to a theory of well-being that links adaptive potential with biocultural success, longevity, and physical health. Adaptive potential is characterized by adaptivity, altruism, and creativity of thought and action. Implications of the theory for a better understanding of cultural dynamics are discussed. [PsycINFO]


Cole, D., & Ahmadi, S. (2003) Perspectives and Experiences of Muslim Women Who Veil on College Campuses. Journal of College Student Development, 44 (1), 47-66. 


Conducted prior to September 11, 2001, this qualitative study explored the perceptions and experiences of seven women who veiled on a large college campus in the Midwest. With national origins ranging from Pakistan, Turkey, Egypt, to the United States, some participants reevaluated and subsequently unveiled due to their college experiences. [ERIC]


Collingridge, D.S. (1999) Suggestions on teaching international students: Advice for psychology instructors. Teaching of Psychology, 26 (2), 126-128.

 Alerts psychology faculty to some pertinent but often overlooked issues regarding international students. These students sometimes face communication barriers and cultural differences in addressing professors. In addition, international students studying in the US must adhere to American immigration laws regarding full-time study status and school employment (e.g., research and teaching assistantships). These issues are discussed and solutions for overcoming various barriers are suggested. [PsycINFO]


Collins, P.L. (1977) Self-perceived problems of international students attending Howard University. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 37 (8-A), 4859.


Coward, F.L. (2003) The challenge of "doing discussions" in graduate seminars: A qualitative study of international students from China, Korea, and Taiwan. Dissertation Abstracts International, 64 (1-A), 66.

The present study was an attempt to explore the experience in which international students from China, Korea, and Taiwan engage as they participate in the fast-speed exchanges commonly found in classroom discussions at the graduate level. I collected data from three graduate classes over a two-month period at an American university in the southwest. One class was in the College of Fine Arts, another in the College of Natural Sciences, and a third in the College of Education. Although the focus of this study was on the international graduate students from China, Korea, and Taiwan, the other members of the classes were also included in data gathering and data analysis in order to gather important contextual information for interpreting the experience of the focal participants. The research method utilized was a qualitative method, specifically the grounded theory techniques. I observed and audio tape-recorded classroom discussions, interviewed the selected pool of participants (18 total) and used two questionnaires that included questions about general personality tendencies, about experiences with different culture(s), and about specific incidents that I had observed in class. My results indicated that because of language limitations, it was very taxing for the focal international students to participate in oral discussions, and that just like the American students, their experience in class was moment-by-moment constructed and reconstructed in response to the physical and social environment. The focal participants seemed assiduously trying to figure out what was going on in class, when they could talk, the classroom role they had assumed or should have assumed in the class, and how well they had learned. As the focal international students developed awareness of cultural differences about how to do a graduate classroom discussion, they continuously combined their growing awareness of cultural differences about how to do discussions with their other views, such as what is allowed for any graduate student. Culture, thus, was reflected as a complex and dynamic construct that is imbedded in context. [PsycINFO]


Crano, S.L. (1985) An investigation of the relationship between self-concept and adjustment of international high school exchange students. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (2-B), 698.


Crano, S.L., & Crano, W.D. (1993) A measure of adjustment strain in international students. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 24 (3), 267-283. 

To develop a measure of the adjustment strains for international students, more than 227 students (aged 15-19 yrs), from 5 South American countries, were assessed twice during their year-long sojourn in the US. The Inventory of Student Adjustment Strain (ISAS) was developed and administered twice during the Ss' sojourn, along with a standard measure of self-concept, which had also been administered before students' departure to the US. Six psychologically meaningful subscales of high internal consistency were derived from the ISAS. Sociodemographic data were collected, as were the perceptions of their exchange experience. Ss' host families reported on the adjustment and integration of the students into family, school, and American life. These auxiliary data pointed to the utility and validity of the ISAS. [PsycINFO]


Craven, T.F. (1981) A comparison of admissions criteria and performance in graduate school for foreign and American students at Temple University. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (5-A), 1983-1984.


Cross, S.E. (1995) Self-construals, coping, and stress in cross-cultural adaptation. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 26 (6), 673-697. 

Examined differences in the independent and interdependent self-construals of 79 American and 71 East Asian students (from Taiwan, Korea, People's Republic of China, and Japan) studying in the US and the influence of these self-construals on coping and stress. Path analysis revealed that the importance of the independent self-construal was positively related to direct coping strategies, which predicted reduced levels of stress for the international students. Ratings of the importance of the interdependent self-construal were positively related to increased stress for the Asian students. The self-construals and direct coping were the strongest predictors of stress for East Asian students. The effects of the self-construals and coping were moderated by culture, however, and were not predictive of perceived stress for American students. [PsycINFO]


Culha, M.U. (1975) Needs and satisfactions of foreign students at the University of Minnesota. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 35 (8-B), 4141.



Dadfar, S. (1982) Differential attitudes of international students toward seeking professional help for psychological difficulties. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (10-A), 4297.


Das, A.K., Chow, S.Y., & Rutherford, B. (1986) The counseling needs of foreign students. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 9 (2), 167-174. 

Reports the findings of 3 studies conducted between 1977 and 1983 concerning the counseling needs of international students at a US university. Issues examined included social isolation, language difficulties, and housing conditions. The studies provide a historical perspective on the changes in student needs as well as in the programs designed to respond to these needs. [PsycINFO]


Dato-on, M.C. (2000) Cultural assimilation and consumption behaviors: A methodological investigation. Journal of Managerial Issues, 12 (4), 427-445.

Reviews literature concerning cross-cultural consumer research and the process of cultural assimilation, particularly regarding foreign students studying in the US. Culture encompasses: (1) possessions or material objects; (2) ideas, values, and attitudes; and (3) normative or expected patterns of behavior, including consumption. The cultural change process involves both learning the standards of the host society and maintaining the ethnic identification of the native culture. Cultivation and materialism theories are the primary methodological constructs employed in student acculturation studies. Promising types of studies include longitudinal and sampling studies, and examinations of the relationship between target populations and goods and services commonly associated with the American way of life. [PsycINFO]


Davidson, L. (1982) Foreign medical graduates: Transcultural psychoanalytic perspectives. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 10 (2), 211-224. 

Compares the cultural cognitive styles of various foreign medical graduates (e.g., Europeans, Latin Americans, Asians). The following topics are discussed: immigration and the medical work contract, American values and the work contract, the East-West cognitive encounter, the psychological task of cross-cultural transition, and transcultural gains. [PsycINFO]


Dawoud, N.A. (1984) Problems, quality of life, and coping skills of foreign students at UCLA. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 44 (8-A), 2357.


Day, R.C., & Hajj, F.M. (1986) Delivering counseling services to international students: The experience of the American University of Beirut. Journal of College Student Personnel, 27 (4), 353-357. 

198 Lebanese students (aged 18-25 yrs) and 75 international students (aged 20-35 yrs) at the American University of Beirut completed the Mooney Problem Check List. The most frequently circled items for Lebanese Ss were in the social and recreational activities area; those for the foreign Ss were in the curriculum and teaching area. 41% of the Lebanese and 68% of the international Ss indicated a desire for counseling. Case examples of counseling situations encountered at the university are presented. [PsycINFO]


de Verthelyi, R.F. (1995, Summer) International students' spouses: Invisible sojourners in the culture shock literature. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 19 (3), 387-411. 

Examined the characteristics, needs and expectations of international students' spouses. 49 spouses (23-40 yrs old) from 26 countries whose husbands were international graduate students at a university in rural Virginia were interviewed on a wide range of issues. Insights were provided regarding such pre-arrival dimensions as choice and decision making, psychological preparation, length of proposed stay, and formulation of a personal project for the sojourn. Results show that personal variables predominated over situational factors, with personality traits, and individual and couple history appearing as more defining of psychological well being than cultural distance and racial background. Gender-role orientation and work/family values were a key factor in the degree of cultural shock. While some spouses adapted easily, others found the lack of professional activity a painful experience and a blow to their self esteem. [PsycINFO]


de Verthelyi, R.F. (1996) Facilitating cross-cultural adjustment: A newsletter by and for international students' spouses. Journal of College Student Development, 37 (6), 699-701. 

Describes a successful, low cost program designed to help international students' spouses understand the normal transitional nature of cross-cultural stress, and to help them overcome the initial feelings of loneliness and frustration. The idea of publishing a newsletter, written and edited by spouses for spouses, was a direct outgrowth of a support group offered by the International Center. The objectives were threefold. For spouses as contributors and editors, this activity would restore a sense of personal identity and enhance positive self-esteem; for spouses as readers, it would provide personal accounts of aspects of the acculturation process; and, for the university, the newsletter would supply material to send to future accompanying spouses. Each issue included 8-10 vignettes written by spouses from different countries with varying lengths of stay in the US. An assessment by the International Center, after 1 yr (4 issues) showed that all identified objectives were met. Most of the 52 respondents to a 10-question survey in the 4th issue indicated that they enjoyed reading Spouse Talk and felt that it dealt honestly with important cross-cultural adjustment issues. [PsycINFO]


del Castillo, C.D. (1984) The effects of counselor international experience and counselor sex on counselor preference and expectations of foreign students under four different problem contexts. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 44 (8-A), 2357-2358.



Demoze, F. (1976) A preliminary survey of the relationships of foreign students' self-concept and personality characteristics to their region of origin. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 37 (4-A), 2048.


Deressa, B., & Beavers, I. (1988) Needs assessment of international students in a college of home economics. Educational Research Quarterly, 12 (2), 51-56. 

Investigated academic and nonacademic needs of 70 international students enrolled in a large US university. A needs statement inventory that included academic needs, housing needs, social and personal problems, cultural values, and financial needs was developed. Significant differences were found between the variables, region of the world from which student came, academic major, intensive English studied in US, and effect of English language when taking examinations. There were also significant differences between academic major, age, enrollment status, degree goal, and housing needs. [PsycINFO]


Dillard, J.M., & Chisolm, G.B. (1983) Counseling the international student in a multicultural context. Journal of College Student Personnel, 24 (2), 101-105. 

Illustrates how the cultures of many international students on university campuses in the US affect the behavior of these students within and outside the counseling relationship and discusses implications that multicultural orientations have for counselors. Many international students in the US place high priority on academic adjustment and view interpersonal happiness as a social accessory. Counselors cannot expect all international students to engage in warm, intimate relationships during counseling. For students whose value orientations to their own culture are low, there is a higher probability these students may actively participate in the counseling session. Conversely, it might be that international students who participate in a subculture with traditional values seem more restrained and less socially involved during counseling. As counselors and international students interact verbally and nonverbally, they need to use a mutually intelligible code. Multicultural counselors seek to understand the values of persons across cultures. This kind of counseling cannot occur until there is a reasonable understanding and tolerance of the international student's value orientation. Therefore, counselors need to examine their own values in their relationships to international students. [PsycINFO]


Doutrich, D. (2001) Experiences of Japanese Nurse Scholars: Insights for U.S. Faculty. Journal of Nursing Education, 40 (5), 210-16. 


Phenomenological analysis of interviews with 22 Japanese nurses with graduate degrees from U.S. schools and 3 Japanese nurse consultants showed how graduate education changed their ways of being and sense of self. They became more verbal, direct, and articulate about personal preferences. Some experienced a sense of loss or alienation upon returning to Japan. [ERIC]


Dreisbach, P.B. (1986) Readjustment and life satisfaction of international students in agriculture when returning to a developing country. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (1-A), 58.


Dumiati, S.I. (1987) An exploratory study of the educational behaviors, aspirations, and attitudes of Saudi wives who reside abroad with their husbands who are studying in the United States. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (9-A), 3293-3294.


Dunnett, S.C. (1977) The effects of an English language training and orientation program on foreign student adaptation at the State University of New York at Buffalo. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 38 (3-A), 1247.


D'Urso, T.L. (1997) Direct and mediating effects of individualism-collectivism orientation and social support on international students' adjustment. Dissertation Abstracts International, 58(1-B), 0414. 

The number of international students studying abroad is on the rise and studies have revealed that these students face adjustment issues such as stress, loneliness, and academic difficulties. Research has suggested that an international student's adjustment depends on a number of mediating variables. The present study investigated the direct and mediating effects of Hofstede's Individualism-Collectivism Orientation on social support networks and college adjustment, respectively, for international students. A total of 109 male and female international students from 31 countries attending universities in the U.S. completed a demographics questionnaire, the Individualism-Collectivism Scale (Hui, 1984), the Social Situations Questionnaire (Furnham & Bochner, 1982), the Inventory of Student Adjustment Strain (Crano & Crano, 1993) and the General Health Questionnaire (Goldberg & Hillier, 1979). Data were analyzed using an observed variable path analysis to determine what effect one's cultural orientation and social support networks have on college adjustment in the U.S. The researcher explored two modified versions of the original path model and accepted one as the final model. Results of the final model revealed a non-significant relationship between the Individualism-Collectivism Scale and the model variables, p>.05, suggesting that cultural orientation may not affect one's ability to acquire social support networks in a host country and may not affect adjustment to college. In addition, results revealed a significant direct relationships between the Social Situations Questionnaire and the General Health Questionnaire and the Inventory of Student Adjustment Strain, p<.05, indicating that the ability to negotiate social situations in a host country affects one's physical/mental and academic adjustment. Also, a direct significant relationship was found between the Inventory of Student Adjustment Strain and the General Health Questionnaire. Additionally, results suggest that proficiency in the English language may play a significant role in easing the adjustment process. In sum, although the Individualism-Collectivism Scale was found to be not significant in the model, the concept of cultural orientation may still be valid and should be explored further. [PsycINFO]


Ebbin, A.J., & Blankenship, E.S. (1986) A longitudinal health care study: International versus domestic students. Journal of American College Health, 34 (4), 177-182. 

Reviewed 96,804 diagnoses from student visits to a university student health center (SHC) during a 3-yr period. The diagnoses coded for international students were compared to those for domestic students. Results indicate that international students (ISs) use the SHC more frequently than domestic students. There was an increased use of the SHC by ISs for psychiatric problems such as anxiety, depression, insomnia, and sexual dysfunction. It is suggested that the increased visits by ISs may be partly related to a need for interaction because of loneliness, depression, and stress; to a sense of stigma on the part of some ISs around seeking emotional support from the student counseling center; and to special SHC programs designed to orient ISs. Specific recommendations are made concerning ways to make emotional support available in the medical setting. [PsycINFO]


Ebbin, A.J., & Blankenship, E.S. (1988) Stress-related diagnosis and barriers to health care among foreign students: Results of a survey. Journal of American College Health, 36 (6), 311-312. 

Surveyed 476 college health center directors to determine if certain stress-related diagnoses were more prevalent among foreign than domestic students. A greater proportion of stress-related diagnoses were found among international students, with foreign students having higher frequencies than domestic students in 10 stress-related diagnoses. [PsycINFO]


Edemobi, F.A. (1986) Social adjustment problems of Nigerian students in land-grant universities in the United States. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (6-A), 2042.


Eftekhari-Sanjani, H. (1991) Influence of background variables of sex, academic level, major, and culture on foreign students' scores on the Career Decision Scale. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 51 (7-A), 2360.


Eghbali, I. (1986) Stress and academic performance of international students. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (3-A), 725-726.


Ekpro, E.T. (1986) Attitudes of Nigerian students in the United States toward handicapped persons. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (10-A), 2994.


Eland, A.J. (2001) Intersection of academics and culture: The academic experience of international graduate students.  Dissertation Abstracts International, 62 (3-A), 909.

International students in the United States are unique because they come from cultures and education systems that are different from those in the U.S. The purpose of this study was to explore the academic experiences of international graduate students in the U.S. Qualitative research methods were used to explore how being from another culture impacts international graduate students' academic experience, and what positive and negative factors affected their experience. The 14 participants were international graduate students from a variety of world regions and fields of study who had lived in the U.S. from 2 to 12 years. The students participated in individual interviews that addressed differences between U.S. and home country education systems, relationships and other supports, challenges and stressors, and the changes they underwent as a result of their international study experience. Data from the interviews were analyzed using qualitative methods of analysis. The analysis yielded a hierarchical organization of the data into 9 domains, 28 categories, and 73 themes. Participants identified several differences between their home country cultures and education systems and those in the U.S. They also indicated that they were impacted by the process of cross-cultural adjustment. Factors that they found helpful to their academic experience included relationships, campus programs and services, and their own behaviors and perspectives. Factors that affected them negatively included communication and relationship differences, lack of certain types of assistance, and some of their own attitudes and behaviors. Participants also reported changes in career plans and self-perception that resulted from studying in the U.S. Results of this study suggest that although international graduate students meet their educational goals in the U.S., their experience could be less stressful and more meaningful if institutions of higher education take into account their unique needs. These needs include having different expectations regarding education than U.S. students and going through the process of cultural adjustment. International students on U.S. college and university campuses provide opportunities for institutions to broaden their cross-cultural perspectives and their views on education. [PsycINFO]


El-Banyan, A.S. (1975) Cross-cultural education and attitude change: A study of Saudi Arabian students in the United States. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 35 (9-A), 6244.


Elenwo, E. (1989) International students' self-perceived expectations and the reality-shock in cross-cultural encounters. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 49 (8-A), 2404-2405.


El-Refaei, H.M. (1993) Selected non-academic factors influencing the social adjustment of Arab and non-Arab Muslim students attending an American university. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 54 (3-A), 885.



El-Sowygh, H.I. (1982) Performance of a Piagetian test by Saudi Arabian students in Colorado colleges and universities in relation to selected sociodemographic and academic data. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (8-A), 3532-3533.


Eng-Kung, Y. (1976) Cross-cultural adaptation and personal growth: The case of Chinese students. Acta Psychologica Taiwanica, 18, 95-104. 

Cross-cultural contact has become one of the increasingly popular experiences for the modern individual. Adaptation in the new cultural environment provides opportunities for self-realization and reevaluation of ego identity but often provokes "identity-crisis." Though psychological turmoil in identity-crisis may become a threat to the integration of ego for those who are vulnerable to this kind of stress, for the average young person to undergo and to work out these crises are worthwhile experiences in strengthening ego identity and psychosocial maturity. Some findings of the author's study on Chinese students in the US and American students in Taiwan are presented for discussion. [PsycINFO]


Engler, J.R. (1982) Perceptions of American nationalism, conservatism, and dogmatism among adult foreign students in intensive English programs in Colorado compared with American university students' perceptions of the same beliefs and attitudes. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (4-A), 1057.


Epstein, P.C. (1996) Achievement motivation attributes of international students attending a postsecondary institution. Dissertation Abstracts International, 57 (4-A), 1460. 

The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the causal attributes of achievement motivation for academic success possessed by international students to those causal attributes of achievement motivation by other legal immigrant student groups attending a postsecondary institution. In this study, F-1 international students have obtained permission from the federal Department of Immigration and Naturalization Services to attend Miami-Dade Community College in Miami, Florida. There were two additional groups of students selected to participate in this study: Permanent Resident students and Others comprised of asylees, refugees and paroles, which are specific categories of legal immigrant students. From the observations of the investigator, international students were more successful at the institution as compared to the other two student groups as measured by such variables as Grade Point Average, Number of Credits Earned and Honors Day awards. By identifying these attributes of achievement motivation, additional curricula, support services and activities can be developed to meet the needs of these highly motivated students. Incorporating the theories of McClelland and Weiner in the theoretical framework of the study, both quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 150 subjects using the Measurement of Achievement Motivation Questionnaire and the Guided Biography Interview as data collection instruments. Statistical analyses on the data collected from the three groups of foreign born students at the institution indicated differences in these identified attributes and their effects on academic success. Results indicated that F-1 international students at Miami-Dade Community College were highly motivated to achieve, possessed different causal attributes of achievement motivation and displayed their need for achievement in different activities and in different ways as compared to the Permanent Resident and Other student groups. [PsycINFO]


Erdogan, I. (1978) Television and newspaper uses and gratifications of foreign graduate students at the University of Pittsburgh: Some correlates. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 39 (3-A), 1175.


Essandoh, P.K. (1992) Help-seeking attitudes and psychological symptoms of African college students in United States colleges and universities. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 53 (2-B), 1107.


Essandoh, P.K. (1995) Counseling issues with African college students in U.S. colleges and universities. Counseling Psychologist, 23 (2), 348-360. 

Identifies the unique counseling needs of African students in American colleges and universities. Despite differences in culture between ethnic, religious, and linguistic African groups, they are similar in that the African etiological theory of mental illness is profoundly rooted in sociocultural and spiritual foundation, the assessment procedures vary between healers, and the role of faith and hope in the traditional therapeutic process is paramount. African students face problems related to uprooting disorders, loss of language and culture, immigration problems, financial strain, potential domestic friction, and minority identity crisis. Issues to which American counselors must be sensitive include boundary concerns, authority, attributions of disturbance, differentiation, and access to counseling services by African students. [PsycINFO]


Essien, I.M. (1975) An investigation of the interaction, perception and attitude of male Nigerian students toward the United States. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 36 (5-A), 2626.



Fahrlander, R.S. (1980) Social participation and adjustment of foreign students at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 41 (2-A), 810.


Famojuro, E.D. (1986) Career preferences and sex-role identities of Nigerian students at Texas Southern University. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (5-A), 1606-1607.


Faniran-Odekunle, F. (1979) Health and illness behavior of Nigerian students in the United States. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 39 (9-A), 5731.



Farsad, M.Y. (1980) A comparison of the study habits of foreign and American graduate students at the University of Northern Colorado. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 41 (6-A), 2510-2511.



Fatima, N. (2001) International Female Graduate Students' Perceptions of Their Adjustment Experiences and Coping Strategies at an Urban Research University. Urban Education.  


This study investigated the perceptions of female international graduate students from non-European countries of their adjustment experiences while studying at an urban research university, identifying coping strategies they used to overcome their problems. Data collection involved focus group interviews that emphasized: why they chose to pursue graduate education at the university; what their experiences had been; their most difficult adjustment problems; how they coped with the problems; and what they thought the university could do to help them with these problems. Common themes that emerged from the data were decision making, language, discrimination, ignorance, coping strategies, and future suggestions. Most women came to the United States because their aspirations had reached a level that could not be satisfied by local opportunities. Problems students encountered included lack of English proficiency, discrimination, and Americans' lack of knowledge about other cultures and countries. Participants coped with problems by finding out which systems worked best for them, then using them to handle their situations. The students wanted their institutions to help facilitate adjustment by focusing on interaction between American and foreign students, discussion forums for international students to share their experiences, and faculty members' understanding of international students' limitations. [ERIC]


Fernandez-Pol, B., Juthani, N.V., Bluestone, H., & Muzruchi, M.S. (1991, Winter) International medical graduates' attitudes toward substance abuse. Academic Psychiatry, 15 (4), 195-198. 

Compared the attitudes of 79 international medical graduate (IMG) applicants to a psychiatry residency training program using the Substance Abuse Attitude Survey by J. N. Chappel et al (see record 1986-00121-001). Except for the finding that men were less moralistic about substance abuse than women, there were no significant attitudinal differences among these IMGs despite their diverse backgrounds. [PsycINFO]


Fernandez-Pol, B., Juthani, N.V., Feiner, J., & Bluestone, H. (1989, Spring) Attitudes of foreign medical graduates and U.S. medical graduates toward mental illness. Academic Psychiatry, 13 (1), 39-43. 

149 applicants to 2 residency programs in psychiatry were surveyed with the Opinion About Mental Illness scale. Stepwise regression analyses showed that the place where the applicant was raised was the best predictor. In comparison with those raised abroad, those raised in the US tended to be less authoritarian-restrictive inclined, tended to report less adherence toward an unsophisticated benevolent approach, and less adherence toward an interpersonal- etiology approach. All Ss, whether raised in the US or not, showed similar adherence to the concepts of the mental hygiene movement. [PsycINFO]


Foerster, S.W. (1982) The effects of a U.S. educational experience on the traditional cultural values of Libyan students. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (11-A), 4942.


Fonseca, M.E. (1996) Factors related to parenting stress and satisfaction among international students with accompanying families and their spouses. Dissertation Abstracts International, 56 (9-A), 3756. 

The purpose of this study was to investigate which environmental and person variables predicted parenting stress and parenting satisfaction in international students with accompanying families and in their non-student spouses. A mail questionnaire was completed by 114 international students and spouses living in a large midwest university's married student housing. The questionnaire included several scales and items measuring the dependent variables of parenting stress (PSI/SF) and parenting satisfaction (SWPS) as well as independent variables: cultural difference, cultural misfit, social support, academic demands, financial difficulties, fluency in English and depressive mood. The main sources of support were also measured as well as the perceived spouses' adjustment. A series of multiple regression analyses indicated that depressive mood was the strongest predictor of parenting stress in both male and female students as well as in non-student females. Cultural Misfit was an important predictor of parenting stress for non-student female spouses but not for the male and female students. Financial support had a small but significant contribution in the parenting stress of male students, and fluency in English also had a small but significant contribution in females' parenting stress. Parenting satisfaction on the other hand was best predicted by Depressive Mood in females and by depressive mood and cultural misfit in non-student female spouses. The amount of variance that was accounted for by independent variables was less for parenting satisfaction than for parenting stress, and less for males than for females. The study also found that the main sources of support for international students with children and spouses are their relatives in their home countries and other students from their own countries. Finally, couple analyses indicated that females made better predictions of their spouses' well-being, while males evaluation of their spouses well-being was more… [PsycINFO]


Forrest, D.V., Ryan, J.H., & Lazar, V. (1978, Spring-Summer) American familiar language and the FMG psychiatric resident. Journal of Psychiatric Education, 2 (1), 68-82. 

The emotional level of communication in American psychiatry relies heavily upon American familiar and slang expressions. Results of testing 60 foreign medical graduates (FMG) (psychiatric residents) in American standard- and slang-language competence revealed much greater deficits in slang than in standard language (9 American 1st-yr residents were the controls). The language-coaching-and-testing component of an experimental 55-hr course in American familiar language, culture, and interviewing for 1st-yr psychiatric residents is described. An instrument (Familiar American-Underground Language Test) to test familiar- (slang) vs standard-language acquisition was used to gauge the progress of 35 1st-yr FMG residents and 3 3rd-yr residents who took the course as compared with 22 1st-yr FMG controls who did not. Test scores indicated that the course markedly improved the familiar-language capabilities of the residents who took the course (an effect independent of their individual initial language abilities), while the control group improved only in their standard-language scores. Although the 3rd-yr FMG residents improved more as a result of the course, their original scores in familiar language before the course did not differ significantly from those of the 1st-yr group. The role of language is discussed in relation to other barriers to being in touch. It is suggested that this course enabled FMG residents to learn culture-appropriate effective responses to the situations of strong emotion that occasion slang usage. [PsycINFO]


Fouad, N.A. (1991) Training counselors to counsel international students: Are we ready? Counseling Psychologist, 19 (1), 66-71. 

Comments on P. B. Pedersen's (see record 1991-16948-001) article on counseling international students, focusing on setting guidelines for training programs in counseling psychology as courses and seminars are developed to meet the needs of this special population. [PsycINFO]


Fowler, M.G. (1979) An analysis of the problems of Korean students in American secondary schools as perceived by Korean students and parents and the teachers in public schools. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 39 (8-A), 4601-4602.


Freijo, T.D. (1974) Selecting foreign students: Are GPA and ratings interchangeable as criterion variables? Florida Journal of Educational Research, 16, 16-21. 

Investigated the relationship between certain background variables often used to select foreign students for study in the US and 2 criterion variables: grade point average (GPA) and ratings of on-the-job success upon returning to their home country. The study attempted to determine whether GPA is a reasonable substitute for ratings of on-the-job effectiveness as a criterion variable. The relationship between 6 background variables and the 2 criterion variables was studied in 43 Honduran educators who studied in Florida during 1969-1970. Results indicate that some variables which were good predictors of GPA were poor predictors of ratings of on-the-job success and that most variables were more highly correlated with GPA than with ratings. [PsycINFO]


Frey, M.L. (2001) Differences in acculturation, worldviews, and ratings of dissociative experiences: A cross-cultural comparison of White American students and international students from developing nations. Dissertation Abstracts International, 61 (7-B), 3841.

This study examined the relationships among acculturation, worldviews, and the ratings of dissociative experiences for White American and international graduate students in a Midwestern university in the United States (U.S.). Worldviews were operationalized as the attitudinal dimensions of Normativism and Humanism; acculturation as the preferences for Language Usage and Social Customs; reactions to cultural discrimination as Perceived Prejudice; and dissociative experiences as unusual perceptions that were labeled as Pathology, Nonpathology, and Culture-Bound syndrome. Using the survey method, data were collected from 125 White American students and 143 international students. While there were no significant differences between White American and international participants on the rating of Pathological dissociation, international participants scored significantly higher on the rating of Nonpathological dissociation. For the White American sample, a three-step hierarchical regression model indicated that Acculturation and Abuse were significant predictors for Nonpathology. While there were no significant differences between the abused and nonabused groups in the White American sample on Culture-Bound syndrome, there was a significant difference between the two abuse groups on Nonpathology scores. The White American students' degree of Acculturation to their own society made a significant contribution to their scores on the Culture-Bound syndrome. For the international sample, a five-step hierarchical regression model indicated that Perceived Prejudice, Acculturation, and Normativism were significant predictors for Nonpathology. International students' Region of origin made a significant contribution to Culture-Bound syndrome. While international students from different Regions of Origin showed similar Nonpathology scores, there were significant differences on Culture-Bound syndrome. The mean of the Southeast Asian group was lower than the means of the South Asian-Middle Eastern and Latin groups. The latter two cultural groupings endorsed stronger culturally-related dissociations. For both the White American and international samples, Perceived Prejudice and Acculturation entered simultaneously into a multiple regression analysis were significant predictors of both Normativism and Humanism. This study may provide support for the theoretical assumption that experiences of dissociation have cultural explanations. [PsycINFO]


Fu, J.W. (1992) The relationship between the MBTI personality types of international students and adjustment to American society. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 53 (1-A), 69.


Furnham, A., & Alibhai, N. (1985) The friendship networks of foreign students: A replication and extension of the functional model. International Journal of Psychology, 20 (6), 709-722. 

Attempted to replicate and extend the study of S. Bochner et al (see record 1979-11938-001), which presented a functional model for the development of overseas student friendship patterns. Whereas Bochner et al used only 30 Far Eastern foreign students and 6 host nationals in their study, the present study used 140 foreign students from 35 countries and 25 host nationals. Ss were asked to specify various aspects (including nationality) of their 3 best friends and their preferred companion for each of a range of everyday situations. Friendship network data revealed a strong preference for co-national friends 1st, other nationals 2nd, and host nationals 3rd; preferred companion data showed co-nationals 1st, host nationals 2nd, and other nationals 3rd. Results closely match those of Bochner et al and provide further evidence for the functional model. (French abstract) [PsycINFO]


Gaviria, M., & Wintrob, R. (1982) Latin American medical graduates: II. The readaptation process for those who return home. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 4 (3), 367-379. 

Among the many publications addressing the theme of foreign medical graduates (FMGs) in the US, little attention has been given to those FMGs who have returned to their home country to practice after completion of postgraduate training at American hospitals and universities. This report, part of a study of FMGs from Peru who completed postgraduate training in the US in 1965-1975, is concerned with the readaptation process of 70 physicians who returned to Peru to practice medicine. The determinants of the decision to return; the academic, familial, and adaptational problems during the readjustment process; and the impact of these physicians on medical education and health care services in Peru are discussed. [PsycINFO]


Ghaban, M.A. (1987) Education and individual modernity among Saudi students: A study of the impact of formal and cross-cultural education on modernizing attitudes and values. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (9-A), 3295.


Gharagozloo-Bahrami, A. (1984) Communication difficulties of Iranian students in the United States: A case study. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 44 (10-A), 2925.


Ghoreyshi, M. (1988) The attitudes of international students toward university withdrawal. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 49 (1-A), 39.


Greenberg, D.M. (1990) International students and their spouses and social support. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 51 (5-A), 1508.


Grey, M. (2002) Drawing with difference: Challenges faced by international students in an undergraduate business degree. Teaching in Higher Education, 7 (2), 153-166. 

Examined the social, cultural and study experiences of 3 international undergraduate business students. Three Ss completed drawings concerning their perceptions of their expectations and concerns upon entering university, their perceived strengths and challenges, and cultural identity issues. Results show that the Ss not only exhibited a pragmatic view of their education, but also specific expectations and goals which in many cases were not being met. Findings suggest that, often, international students are overlooked and not given a chance for their voices to be heard. [PsycINFO]


Gribbons, B.C., & Dixon, P.S. (2001) College of the Canyons International Students Program Student Questionnaire, Fall 2000.  Community Colleges.  


In order to assess the services of the International Students Program (ISP), the College of the Canyons in Santa Clarita (California) surveyed its international student population. The survey instrument included Likert-scale items as well as open-ended questions. Questionnaires were mailed to the homes of 130 ISP students, and 37 surveys were returned for a response rate of 28.5 percent. Findings included: (1) respondents were most positive with respect to the benefits of personal counseling (82%) and academic counseling (79%) provided by the ISP; (2) respondents rated the general services of ISP highly (78%) and stated that they were generally satisfied with the college (72%); (3) respondents felt most negative about housing assistance services and personal development courses; and (4) respondents felt transportation services were less than satisfactory and that ISP needed to do more to support their integration into American society. Based on the results of this survey, it is recommended that ISP increase socialization and networking activities. Contains the survey instrument, response rates for closed-ended questions, and responses to open-ended questions. [ERIC]


Grinnell, J.R. (1989) Toward an education for crossing cultures: A study of emotional issues related to the cross-cultural experience. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 49 (7-A), 1716.


Guenther, H. (1975) Attitude change in high school exchange students: An investigation into the effects of a one-year stay in a foreign culture. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 36 (4-B), 1967.



Hadiyono, J.E. (1986) The effect of the native language and English during interactional group psychotherapy with Indonesian and Malaysian students, and the effectiveness of this method for foreign students from non-Western countries. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (10-B), 3594.


Haider, N. (1992) Aids and foreign graduate students: Knowledge, misinformation and perceived risk. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 53 (2-A), 412.


Haile, T. (1980) A survey analysis on attitudes of national and international college students toward older people. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 40 (12-A, Pt 1), 6109.



Hamed, S.A. (1986) An analysis of support resources used to help solve the problems faced by Egyptian students and their families in the United States. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (7-A), 1838.


Hammer, M.R. (1992, Spring) Research, mission statements, and international student advising offices. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 16 (2), 217-236. 

Discusses the influence of 4 major lines of research on sojourner adaptation on the development of mission statements of international student advising offices in American universities. It is suggested that inferences derived from research on the problems of foreign student adaptation provided a basis for establishing international student advising offices, whereas research on culture shock, stages of adjustment, and cross-cultural counseling led to expansion of the mission of these departments to include counseling and psychologically based orientation programs. The latter (more recent) lines of research are important because they provide empirical support for including in these mission statements the notion of culture learning and the important role communication plays in facilitating adaptation. [PsycINFO]


Harahsheh, B.A. (1993) Health belief model applied to HIV/AIDS related behavior among Middle Eastern students attending Pacific Northwest universities. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 53 (10-B), 5158.



Harfoush, S.M. (1978) A study of adjustment problems and attitudes of United Arab Emirates undergraduate students in the United States during the fall of 1977. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 39 (4-A), 2085-2086.


Harik-Williams, N.. (2003) Willingness of international students to seek counseling.  Dissertation Abstracts International, 64 (3-B), 1492.

The predictors of international students' willingness to seek counseling were investigated in the context of Berry's (1990) model of sojourner acculturation. The sample consisted of 117 international students from three institutions of higher education; a large community college, a large state university, and a medium-sized private university. Instruments completed by participants included: the Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help, the American-International Relations Scale, a modified version of the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation scale, the Non-Cognitive Questionnaire and a Demographic Information Sheet. It was hypothesized that acculturation (as measured by the AIRS), continent of origin, length of time spent in the U.S., and preference for long-term goals (as measured by the NCQ each would predict significantly willingness to seek counseling (as measured by the ATSPPH), after controlling for prior counseling experience. Additionally, it was hypothesized that acculturation and the preference for long-term goals each would demonstrate incremental validity in predicting counseling willingness. Results indicated that willingness to seek counseling was predicted by acculturation, continent of origin, and preference for long-term goals after controlling for prior counseling experience. Acculturation failed to demonstrate incremental validity over continent of origin and preference for long-term goals. Continent of origin and long-term goal orientation did demonstrate incremental validity over acculturation, suggesting that despite their shared variance, each variable contributes unique variance to predicting counseling willingness. Length of time spent in one's host country did not predict significantly willingness to seek counseling. Continent of origin and long-term goal orientation may be related to one's acculturation; continent of origin may represent one's cultural distance from American values and life, and long-term goal orientation is a value of U.S. culture. Counseling implications are discussed including the importance of outreach efforts to international students, and counseling treatments that may better fit into the world views of this group of students. Future research directions include specific validation of particular aspects of Berry's (1990) theory. Other variables that warrant further investigation include continent of origin and long-term time orientation, as they seem to be related to acculturation and are strong predictors of counseling willingness. [PsycINFO]


Harju, B.L., Long, T.E., & Allred, L.J. (1998) Cross cultural reactions of international students to US health care. College Student Journal, 32 (1), 112-120.

Results of a qualitative health care survey of 107 international students showed that a 92% majority used medical services and 83% felt satisfied and understood. Women were significantly more frequent users of medical services than men. Counseling was used by only 15 respondents (14%); of these, 93% were satisfied. Many students, especially the 34% with dependents, were very concerned by both the lack of free, comprehensive care and the high cost of insurance. While most Asian (96%) and European students (78%) reported overall satisfaction, more than half also reported concerns. Based on these comments, a culturally sensitivity program should include comprehensive and practical health care orientation information given both prior to and upon arrival, extensive treatment consultations, more free services, and greater assistance with insurance. A slowly paced interview would be very much appreciated, especially by Asians. Staff could be more receptive to occasional criticisms from European students and could question Asians more carefully for unexpressed concerns. Procedures could be carefully explained. [PsycINFO]


Harris, P.B., Werner, C.M., Brown, B.B., & Ingebritsen, D. (1995) Relocation and privacy regulation: A cross-cultural analysis. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 15 (4), 311-320. 

Examined the effects of cross-cultural relocation on the ease of privacy regulation among 141 US and 26 Asian female residents of a university student family housing facility. To qualify for this housing, residents had to be married and/or have children, and have some affiliation with the university. All Ss were students and/or married to students. The interacting effects of length of residence, privacy regulation, attachment to place, and quality of life were assessed. Mean length of residence in the facility was identical for both US and Asian Ss and had no effect on privacy regulation. Compared to US Ss, Asian Ss had more difficulty establishing contacts with neighbors. However, as interaction with family within the home is an intra-cultural phenomenon, these Ss did not have difficulty regulating privacy with family. Effective regulation was related to place attachment, and this attachment was related to a subjective sense of well-being. [PsycINFO]


Harwell, D.J. (1984) A descriptive survey study of the health problems, health status and health behaviors of Middle Eastern students utilizing the student health center at the University of Toledo using a multiple methods design. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 44 (8-A), 2367.


Hashemi, B. (1986) Attitudes of international students toward university counseling services. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (3-A), 791.


Hashim, I.B. (1992) The effectiveness of a job search skills training program on the job readiness of undergraduate Malaysian students enrolled at Western Michigan University. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 53 (5-A), 1400.


Hassani, F.P. (1982) Social personality traits and styles of coping with stress among Middle Eastern and American students. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (2-B), 508.


Hawkey, W.S. (1998) The impact of American independent school boarding experiences on Japanese and Korean students. Dissertation Abstracts International, 58 (10-A), 3832.

One hundred twenty-six Korean and Japanese students from selected boarding schools in the Philadelphia and New York metropolitan areas including New Jersey, indicated the reasons why they are attending American independent boarding schools, the reasons they believe their parents sent them to an American boarding school, their satisfaction with their boarding school experience (and whether GPA affects this experience), the extent to which they believe their parents are satisfied with the experience, and adjustment issues with suggestions for improvement on the Boarding School Experience Scale (BSES). Two of the 14 student reasons for attending American boarding schools (i.e., 'Learn English' and 'College Admission') were found to be significantly important reasons for students in their decision to attend boarding school. Ten of the 14 student reasons were found to be significantly unimportant reasons in student's decision to attend boarding school. A large majority of students (92.8%) indicated that the reason, 'Learn English' was the most important reason in their decision to attend boarding school. The next most important reason was 'College Admission' with 74.6% of the students indicating this as an Important reason. On the other hand, students cited the reasons 'Parents Educated USA' (4.8%), 'Family Problems' (6.3%), and 'Political Unrest' (6.4%) as the least important reasons in their decision to attend boarding school. Similar results were obtained when students were asked to consider the reasons why they believed their parents sent them to an American boarding school. Students indicated a significant level of satisfaction with their boarding school experience. Students also believed that their parents would indicate a significant level of satisfaction with their child's boarding school experience. The single most reported adjustment issue was found in the area of Language and Communication by 45.4% (N = 50) of the participants. The most frequently reported suggestion related to, 'having more structured time available to interact with American students and their families (17%, N = 16). Students' level of academic success was not found to be significantly related to satisfaction with their boarding school experience. Theoretical and practical implications as well as limitations of the study and suggestions for further research are discussed. [PsycINFO]


Haydon, L. Meeting the Needs of International Students at Dominican University of California. Higher Education. 


This study surveyed the academic needs of international students at Dominican University of California and compared the reported needs of these students with those of the larger population of international students. Of the 55 surveys distributed, 38 were returned. Survey results show that a large percentage of international students attending Dominican University of California were able to understand class lectures and written materials and could finish their work in a timely manner. More challenging to international students were writing essays and speaking in the classroom. A large percentage of students reported that they did not use campus resources at the university fully. Language proficiency was positively related to cultural adaptation, social integration, and academic progress. Social integration and cultural adaptation directly and positively correlated to academic success. The difficulties reported by international students at Dominican University were similar to those reported by international students at colleges and universities throughout the United States. It can thus be assumed that the components of successful international programs used at other institutions of higher learning will be applicable and useful at Dominican. From this data, a staff development module will be developed. The survey is attached. [ERIC]


Hayes, R.L., & Lin, H. (1994) Coming to America: Developing social support systems for international students. Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development, 22 (1), 7-16. 

 Provides an overview of the life adjustments of international students to social networking on American campuses and identifies the special needs of this group. In moving to the US, international students experience a sense of social loss. Their individual coping styles and social networks play significant roles in their social support systems. Some of the inhibitors and stimulators that affect international students' interaction with the host society include individual differences, sex role differences, stigma, and language difficulties. Understanding the student's facility for cultural adjustment can help a counselor select interventions appropriate to his or her developing needs. Specifically, counselors must be able to counsel across cultures and provide students with assistance in their networking efforts. [PsycINFO]


Hechanova-Alampay, R., Beehr, T.A., Christiansen, N.D., & Van Horn, R.K. (2002) Adjustment and strain among domestic and international student sojourners: A longitudinal study.  School Psychology International, 23 (4), 458-474. 

Every year, a growing number of students leave their home environments and relocate to study at universities abroad. Relocation, however, can be a challenging and stressful experience. This longitudinal study surveyed 294 international and domestic student sojourners to examine and compare their adjustment and distress or strain responses during the first six months of their entry into a medium-sized, mid-western US state university. The findings revealed that international student sojourners, compared to domestic sojourners, had greater difficulty in adjusting during their initial transition into the university. Although sojourners experienced increasing adjustment over time, the pattern of strain was curvilinear, peaking three months after the start of the semester. Self-efficacy, social support and cultural novelty predicted adjustment and strain at different times during the transition period. [PsycINFO]


Heggins, W.J. III, & Jackson, J.F. (2003) Understanding the Collegiate Experience for Asian International Students at a Midwestern Research University. College Student Journal, 37 (3), 379-391.

The Asian international student population in American universities is presently greater than 10% (Institute for International Education, 1999). As a result, student affairs practitioners and other university personnel must recognize factors that may impact the transition process for Asian international students and the role of student development during their collegiate experience. This study used interviews and focus groups to determine: (1) their level of student development; and (2) their experience transitioning through an American Midwestern Research University (MRU). Seven factors were identified that influence the development of Asian international students at MRU: choice, adjustment, communication, learning, participation, external pressures of family, and traditional values. A conceptual model is developed from the findings to help depict the collegiate experience for Asian international students. [PsycINFO]


Hejri, F., & Sorenson, G. (1992) Life satisfaction among Iranian and American graduate students. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 5 (3), 291-297. 

Examined differences in the life satisfaction of American students and Iranian students who came to the US after the Iranian revolution in 1979. 94 Iranian students and 41 American students completed the Life Satisfaction Inventory, a measure of 15 life satisfaction subscales. For both Iranians and Americans, perceptions of life satisfaction correlated significantly with perception of competence, social network, and hopes for the future. American Ss showed more satisfaction with their competence than did Iranians. The Iranians, however, reported greater availability of social network resources than Americans. Both groups are tolerating stress relatively well and both are optimistic about the future. [PsycINFO]


Hemesath, M., & Pomponio, X. (1998) Cooperation and culture: Students from China and the United States in a prisoner's dilemma. Cross-Cultural Research: the Journal of Comparative Social Science, 32 (2), 171-184.

Examined individual economic behavior in a prisoner's dilemma experiment among 17 Chinese vs. 13 American undergraduates. Ss were gathered in a large conference room where the details of the prisoner's dilemma, including the consequences of each choice and the fact that they would be paid in real money, was explained to them. Ss played 4 games choosing 4 different partners. A total of 61 games were played, representing 122 decisions. Results show that the Chinese Ss cooperated 53.7% of the time and American Ss only cooperated 25.5% of the time. These results suggest that Americans behave in a more self-interested, less cooperative manner than the Chinese do. [PsycINFO]


Hojat, M. (1982) Loneliness as a function of selected personality variables. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38 (1), 137-141. 

Hypothesized that selected personality variables--Depression, Anxiety, Neuroticism, Psychoticism, Misanthropy, and External Locus of Control--could positively predict loneliness and self-esteem and that Extraversion could negatively predict loneliness scores. Ss in Group 1 were 232 Iranian college students studying in American colleges. Group 2 consisted of 305 Iranian students studying in Iran. Measures included the UCLA Loneliness Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale, Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis confirmed the hypothesis. However, some of the selected variables did not contribute significantly in the regression equations. Factor analysis revealed 2 factors with eigenvalues greater than unity. Loneliness loaded heavily on the 1st factor, Negative Attribute of Personality. [PsycINFO]


Hojat, M. (1982, Fall) Psychometric characteristics of the UCLA Loneliness Scale: A study with Iranian college students. Educational & Psychological Measurement, 42 (3), 917-925. 

Investigated the psychometric characteristics of the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale (LS) with 232 Iranian college students studying in American universities and 305 Iranian students studying in Iranian universities. Significant positive correlations were found between the scores of the LS and measures of other related variables such as depression, anxiety, and neuroticism. Negative correlations were observed between the LS and measures of self-esteem and extroversion. The factorial structure of the LS supported the multidimensionality of the scale. [PsycINFO]


Hojat, M. (1983) Comparison of transitory and chronic loners on selected personality variables. British Journal of Psychology, 74 (2), 199-202. 

232 18-39 yr old Iranian students studying in American universities (Group 1) and 305 17-39 yr old Iranian students studying in Iranian universities (Group 2) were administered a battery of tests that included the UCLA Loneliness Scale, Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale. Based on responses to a question concerning duration of experiencing loneliness, 83 Ss in Group 1 and 114 in Group 2 were identified as transitory loners. 43 Ss in Group 1 and 82 in Group 2 were identified as chronic loners. Chronic loners scored significantly higher than transitory loners on measures of global loneliness, anxiety, depression, neuroticism, and external locus of control. Also, chronic loners scored significantly lower on self-esteem and extraversion. When the effect of global loneliness was controlled, no significant difference was observed between transitory and chronic loners in Group 1, but in Group 2, the differences on depression and extraversion remained significant. [PsycINFO]


Hong, W., Chan, L., Zheng, D., & Wang, C. (1992) Neurasthenia in Chinese students at UCLA. Psychiatric Annals, 22 (4), 199-201. 

Studied the prevalence and characteristics of neurasthenia among 76 native Chinese university students living in the US. Ss completed a questionnaire about neurasthenia and filled out the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Findings show that Ss who have been diagnosed as having neurasthenia frequently have symptoms and signs of depression. This sample showed a high prevalence of neurasthenia, a finding consistent with more systematic epidemiological studies of Chinese in Asia. [PsycINFO]


Hopkins, R.S. (1982) Defining and predicting overseas effectiveness for adolescent exchange students. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (12-A), 5052-5053.



Horner, D.D. (1980) Iranian June Examination as a predictor of academic success in Washington colleges. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 40 (9-A), 4967.

Horwood, S.E. (1992) The relationship between learning style and academic achievement of international college students. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 53 (2-A), 447.


Hosseindoust, B. (1975) The study of adjustment problems of Iranian students in the United States. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 36 (2-A), 706.



Hosseini, R.M. (1982) A study of foreign students' English idioms skills and academic achievement, cultural contacts, and life adjustments. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (1-A), 64.



Hsu, L.R. (1984) Loneliness: In foreign students and depressed clients. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (4-B), 1289.


Hu, S.P. (1991) English proficiency and academic performance of international graduate students. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 52 (5-A), 1626.


Huang, J., & Sisco, B.R. (1994) Thinking styles of Chinese and American adult students in higher education: A comparative study. Psychological Reports, 74 (2), 475-480. 

Compares the thinking styles of 75 Chinese and 75 American graduate students (96 men, 54 women; aged 25+ yrs), using the Inquiry Mode Questionnaire. Chinese Ss scored as more pragmatic than American Ss, and Chinese men and American women scored as more idealistic than did Chinese women and American men. Students of social science or humanities and of natural science scored as more idealistic than those in engineering. Ss of natural science and engineering scored as more analytical than those from social science or humanities, and engineering students scored as more realistic than other majors. Engineering students preferred the analytical thinking style most and the synthesist style least. [PsycINFO]


Huang, K. (1977) Campus mental health: The foreigner at your desk. Journal of the American College Health Association, 25 (3), 216-219.

Discusses several problems of foreign students, including communication barriers, cultural maladjustment, lack of a support network, and multiple accountability. Communication difficulties and changes in culture and environment can lead to isolation, depression, and possible failure. Over 140,000 students from 176 countries are currently attending US colleges. In order to improve the service delivery system for them, an internship on campus mental health was established at the University of California. A special office helps foreign students solve their problems and expand their social and cultural learning. It is concluded, however, that large-scale change in the university ecosystem is needed to promote psychosocial well-being and to reduce casualties among vulnerable individuals. [PsycINFO]


Hullett, C.R., & Witte, K. (2001) Predicting intercultural adaptation and isolation: Using the extended parallel process model to test anxiety/uncertainty management theory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 25 (2), 125-139.

Utilized W. Gudykunst and H. Hammer's anxiety/uncertainty management theory (AUM) and K. Witte's extended parallel process model to examine adaptive and maladaptive behaviors in cross cultural interactions. The Ss were 121 international students at a large southwestern university, 75 males and 46 females. The participants attributional confidence, anxiety, adaption, social isolation, stereotypes, cultural similarity, knowledge of host culture, favorable contact, and critical value were measured from data collected from each participant. Results from a secondary analysis of data drawn front a sample of international students provide support for the application of the EPPM to AUM theory. Specifically, the theory predicts and the data indicate that (1) when uncertainty control processes are dominating, sojourners' responses are more adaptive than maladaptive, and (2) when anxiety control processes are dominating, sojourners' responses are more maladaptive than adaptive. [PsycINFO]


Hung, J.S. (1986) The role of foreign graduate student advisors as perceived by Chinese students from Taiwan, R.O.C. and their academic advisors in relation to students' expressed education satisfaction. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (3-A), 732-733.


Idowu, A.I. (1985) Counseling Nigerian students in United States colleges and universities. Journal of Counseling & Development, 63 (8), 506-509. 

Discusses ways in which American counselors can build positive relationships and initiate appropriate interventions with Nigerian students on US college and university campuses, noting characteristics and problems of the typical Nigerian student. Three major areas define the core of Nigerian students' problems in the US: financial, sociocultural, and academic. The aim of counseling is to maintain the clients' cultural order, simultaneously allowing the client to face sophisticated challenges posed by the new culture without fear or guilt. [PsycINFO]


Ingman, K.A. (2003) An examination of social anxiety, social skills, social adjustment, and self-construal in Chinese and American students at an American university.  Dissertation Abstracts International, 63 (9-B), 4374. 

Research has shown that international students studying in the United States report significantly lower levels of social adjustment than American students. Cultural differences may contribute to this problem; however, social relationships between international students and American students lead to greater adjustment for the former group. In spite of this finding, many international students fail to develop significant interpersonal relationships with American students. In this study, self-construal, social anxiety, and social skills were investigated as possible mediating variables for international student social adjustment. During the first phase of the study, data were collected from 59 Chinese and 105 American graduate students at a large state university in the southeastern United States. Results indicated that Chinese students experience lower social adjustment, higher levels of social anxiety, and report higher interdependent self-construal than American students. Independent self-construal was inversely related to social anxiety for both groups. In addition, an inverse relationship between social anxiety and social adjustment was found for the American students only. For the second phase of the study, a subset of Chinese (N = 28) and American (N = 32) students from the first phase participated in four separate dyadic interactions with both Chinese and American confederates. The students were asked to rate their level of anxiety both before and after the interaction, and their behavior during the interaction was videotaped and later rated by independent observers. Analyses of these data revealed that American students experienced higher anxiety than Chinese students both before and after the interactions. Social adjustment appears to play a role in this difference since Chinese subjects with low social adjustment reported lower post-interaction anxiety than those with high social adjustment. Self-construal is also discussed as a possible explanation for this finding. In addition, American students were rated as having better overall social skills (as defined by American norms) than Chinese students. Both groups of students reported lower anxiety after interacting with an American confederate, perhaps due to language difficulties during interactions with Chinese confederates. Finally, some interesting results were revealed when the effects of sex were explored in the analyses. Implications for student orientation programs and directions for future research are discussed. [PsycINFO]


Intarakumnerd, T. (1976) The effects of transactional analysis on the self-concept of Thai students who are enrolled in Mississippi universities. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 37 (3-A), 1405.



Ismail, M.A. (1977) A cross-cultural study of moral judgments: The relationship between American and Saudi Arabian university students on the Defining Issues Test. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 37 (9-A), 5702-5703.



Ismail, Y. (1983) A study of the relationships between achievement motivation and learning styles of a group of Malaysian students attending Northern Illinois University. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (7-A), 2304.



Jaafar, A.S. (1983) An examination of the assertive behavior of Malay students enrolled in American colleges and universities using selected variables. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (9-A), 2893.



Jabalameli, P. (1993) Factors that influence the loneliness of international students studying in the United States. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 54 (3-A), 755.


Jacquith, L., Rhue, J.W., Lynn, S.J., & Seevaratnam, J. (1996) Cross-cultural aspects of hypnotizability and imagination. Contemporary Hypnosis, 13 (2), 94-99. 

Assessed susceptibility to hypnosis and mental imagery ability in 133 native Malaysian students at University of Malaysia compared to 55 Malaysian students at Ohio University. The average length of enrollment was 2.5 yrs and 459 college students (US residents) from Ohio University were also tested. The means of measures across all samples were comparable, with the exception that the Malaysian students scored lower on the Creative Imagination Scale (S.C. Wilson and T. X. Barber, 1978). When Malaysian students resided in the US, the correlations between hypnotizability and absorption and waking suggestion were all significant, as was the case with US residents. Results imply that culture-based expectancies play a role in mediating the relationship between hypnotizability and measures associated with hypnotizability in Western cultures. [PsycINFO]


Jaradat, D., Abu-Helu, Y., Bataineh, W. (1984) Factors influencing attitudes and adjustment of returnee graduates in Jordan. Journal of Psychology, 117 (1), 53-63. 

Attempted to identify factors influencing adjustment, attitudes toward family life and social relations, and attitudes toward political and economic issues of 470 Jordanian returnee engineering graduates. Ss were administered a questionnaire consisting of biographical data and 3 subscales. Factors included the S's age, sex, marital status, place of graduation, length of time since return to Jordan, religion, and socialization (in a village or a city). Using multiple regression analyses it was found that the largest proportion of variance explained was in Ss' attitudes toward family life and social relations, the least in their adjustment patterns. Length of time since return and place of graduation were the most salient in explaining variation in Ss' attitudes. [PsycINFO]


Javadi, Y. (1981) The effects of cultural values on decision-making style: A cross-cultural comparative study of American and Iranian college students. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (4-A), 1550.



Johnston, G.W. (1983) Perceptual change of culture and belief system among selected university age Mexican and Japanese foreign students in the U.S. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (11-A), 3561.


Juarez, A.H. (1987) Development and validation of an instrument to measure stress in foreign students. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (11-A), 4025.


Jun, J., & Park, J.H. Power Relations within Online Discussion Context: Based on Adult International Students' Perspective and Their Participation in the Learning Context. Adult, Career, and Vocational Education. 


In order to examine and understand power relations between international students who speak English as a second language and American students in online discussions in adult and higher education settings, 1002 postings related to discussion topics in two doctoral-level adult education online classes with 45 students 6 of whom were international students were analyzed using critical discourse analysis, and 5 of the international students were subsequently interviewed. The researchers sought to learn in what ways power and privilege are expressed in online discussions and how adult international students interpret the nature of power relations within the context of online discussion. International students' postings indicate that they initiate discussions far less frequently than American students, primarily posting to reply to someone's opinions with sympathetic language that supplements rather than contradicts, and they frequently use powerless language such as disclaimers, hedges, and tag questions. In addition, international students often do not post in online discussions because of the language barrier, including their failure in catching discussion context. The analysis suggests that power inequality is mostly caused by linguistic and cultural context misunderstandings. It is recommended that facilitators of online courses pay more attention to international adult students in order to ensure that their participation is acknowledged, therefore reducing their marginality. [ERIC]


Kaczmarek, P.G., Matlock, G., Merta, R., Ames, M.H., et al. (1994) An assessment of international college student adjustment. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 17 (4), 241-247. 

Compared scores on the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire for 29 international and 57 US students. International students scored significantly lower on the social and institutional attachment and goal commitment subscales. They seemed to have realistic self-perceptions about their ability to adjust to the college environment. However, international students experienced a more difficult college transition than US students and may have had a more difficult time seeking appropriate assistance, as those who rated they had received significant help from a faculty member reported a significant increase in psychological and somatic complaints. [PsycINFO]


Kagan, H., & Cohen, J. (1990) Cultural adjustment of international students. Psychological Science, 1 (2), 133-137. 

Examined whether cultural adjustment was affected by behavioral, cognitive, affective, and demographic attributes and by different levels of acculturation. 92 international and 67 US college students responded to questionnaires that assessed demographics, values, and acculturation. Ss also completed the Decision Making Inventory and the Personality and Social Network Adjustment Scale (A. W. Clark; see record 1968-14054-001). Cultural adjustment was simultaneously affected by employment level, language spoken at home, having both American and native friends, internal decison making, and work value. Cultural assimilation and cultural transmutation were the only acculturation levels that accounted for a significant portion of the variance in international students' personal and social adjustment. Findings support a native-extinction, host-association model of cultural adjustment. [PsycINFO]


Kagitcibasi, C. (1978, Summer) Cross-national encounters: Turkish students in the United States. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 2 (2), 141-160. 

Studied the effects of sojourn experience on the attitudes of young Turkish students spending 1 year in the US. Certain of the attitude changes obtained were attributed to the favorable nature of sojourn experience: decreases in authoritarianism and religiosity and increases in world-mindedness and to a lesser degree in belief in internal control and perceived family control. Patriotism and achievement values decreased independently of sojourn experience, indicating an age trend. (Spanish & French abstracts) [PsycINFO]


Kaiser, J. (1986, Winter) The validity of the GRE Aptitude Test for foreign students. College Student Journal, 20 (4), 403-410. 

Investigated the predictive validity of the Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) Aptitude Test for 148 college foreign students. Results reveal that GRE Verbal score is the best single predictor and the composite of GRE Verbal score and major is the best set of multiple predictors. GRE scores supported the conclusion that the GRE Aptitude Test is not a good measure to predict graduate school GPA of foreign students. [PsycINFO]


Kamal, A.A. (1984) A study of attitudes, social adjustment and educational problems of Qatari students pursuing higher education in the United States. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (5-A), 1344.


Kamal, A.A., & Maruyama, G. (1990) Cross-cultural contact and attitudes of Qatari students in the United States. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 14 (2), 123-134. 

Examined the attitudes of 223 students from the State of Qatar, as they pursued higher education in the US, toward their education and the American society. Findings are consistent with contact theory hypotheses; Ss experiencing greater promotive contacts displayed more favorable attitudes toward the US. Measures of positive cultural contact were significantly related to attitudes about academic progress, adjustment, and the American people (but not to either the American government or traditional views about the roles of women). (French & Spanish abstracts) [PsycINFO]


Kang, J. (1991) Selected Korean students' perceptions of adjustment problems in American higher education. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 51 (12-A, Pt 1), 4033-4034.


Kang, J.R. (1993) The effects of counselor ethnicity, counseling style, and acculturation on male Korean graduate students' perceptions of counselor effectiveness. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 54 (1-A), 91.



Kangwanshirathada, S. (1983) Factors that affect the academic success of foreign graduate students at Arizona State University: A grounded theory study. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 44 (3-A), 615.


Kao, C., & Gansneder, B. (1995) An assessment of class participation by international graduate students. Journal of College Student Development, 36 (2), 132-140. 

Examined international graduate students' speaking frequency in US classrooms and reasons that deterred them from participating in class discussion. In-depth interviews with 355 Ss (52 female) were conducted. Male Ss from British Commonwealths spoke in class most often. Female Ss from Asian countries using English as the official language were the 2nd most frequent participators. Ss were differentiated by whether or not English was the official language in their countries. Age and gender were not significant for any of 5 factors for not speaking in class. Findings support the influence of cultural factors on Asian Ss' passivity in the classroom. [PsycINFO]


Karim, A.U. (1997) Counseling centers' policy and staff perceptions towards serving the international student population. Dissertation Abstracts International, 57 (10-A), 4273.

The purpose of this descriptive exploratory study was to investigate the counseling centers' policy, programming, staff training, clinical consideration, and staff perceptions towards serving international students at 85 universities in the U.S. with populations of a 1000 or more international students each and provide suggestions for internationalizing counseling centers to better serve the international students. Data was gathered through separate mail surveys to directors and staff members of the above mentioned academic institutions. 40 directors, and 200 staff members representing 41 of the 85 agencies responded to the mailing. Responses were analyzed to answer the 21 research questions asked by this study about policy, programming, training, and clinical dimensions of the sample agencies as well as staff members' perception of personal and agency strengths and limitations in serving international students. Results of the directors' survey indicated that while the overwhelming majority of counseling centers' considered international students as a minority group none of these agencies had a written service policy for this population. Professional literature and informal methods of assessing international students' needs were most commonly used and only a small percentage of agencies actually conducted need assessment studies on their campuses. Majority of agencies used three or more methods of training their staff. Psychoeducational workshops and support groups were the most frequently used programming methods and orientation week presentations and informal direct contact with international students were most reported method of outreach. Most of the agencies reported that their services to international students have improved compared to ten years ago. While mean international student population size for sample was 7.6% of total student enrollment only 5% of counseling center clients were international students. Cultural differences between counselor and clients' values, language barriers, students help seeking attitude, difficulty in diagnosis, premature termination were reported barriers to serving international students. Staff members viewed lack of formal and specific training as the most important limitation of their personal and their agencies' weakness. A general process of institutionalizing change at counseling centers was presented and specific detailed suggestions were provided to internationalize counseling centers. [PsycINFO]


Kasahara, E. (2002) International university students' perceptions of cultural and contextual adaptation, acculturation, and control.  Dissertation Abstracts International, 63 (5-A), 1709.

This study investigated the dynamics of acculturation among international university students as it relates to psychosocial adaptation, control, and demographic factors. Specifically, it examined whether or not cultural and contextual adaptation (as measured by the PACCC-RV II), various perception and modes of control (as measured by the SCI), and demographic factors individually and collectively predicted acculturation as measured by the three factors of the AIRS: Perceived Prejudice, Acculturation, and Language Usage. One hundred twenty three international students at Northern Arizona University participated in this study. The results of stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed significant predictive relationships among predictor variables and criterion variables. The international students at Northern Arizona University (NAU) who perceived greater prejudice in the U.S. had less contextual satisfaction, less overall sense of control, greater desire to have control in general, and they were more likely to be female and more likely to be from a non-European country. The NAU international students with greater acculturation to the university environment in the U.S. had greater desire to remain in the U.S., were more able to meet the needs of the environment, and were more likely to be male. Finally, The NAU international students with greater proficiency in English were more likely from non-Asian countries and had a greater length of stay in the U.S. Implications of the results suggest: (1) Acculturation is indeed a multidimensional process upon which various factors influence one's acculturation process, a view consistent with contemporary understanding of acculturation; (2) An intercultural distance between the host country and one's original country does not necessary relate to one's acculturation and/or acculturative stress; and lastly; (3) One's perceived prejudice can be changed. [PsycINFO]


Kashani-Siadat, N. (1986) Selected factors affecting Iranian students' academic performance at USC after the Iranian revolution of 1978-79. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (3-A), 717.


Kaul, A. (2002) Predictors of positive adaptation among international students in the United States. Dissertation Abstracts International, 62 (10-B), 4790.

 This study examined predictors of positive adaptation among international students in the United State. The predictor variables that were examined included perceived discrimination, homesickness, perceived hate, fear, stress due to change/culture shock, guilt and a miscellaneous category. In addition to looking at international students as a whole, a comparison was made between European and other international students. European international students indicated significantly lower acculturation mess than other international students. In terms of overall positive adaptation, there was not a significant difference between European and other international students. For the international student population at large, and for European international students, the variables fear, stress due to change/culture shock, and miscellaneous were statistically significant. For international students that were from outside of Europe, homesickness was the only factor that was significant. Lastly, perceived English language fluency was significantly correlated to both acculturation stress and positive adaptation. [PsycINFO]


Kelley, E.F. (1993) The non-native English-speaking student in the community college developmental English classroom: An ethnographic study. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 54 (2-A), 443.



Kershaw, R.M. (1974) Attitudes toward religion of Saudi Arabian students in the United States. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 34 (7-A), 4405-4406.



Khabiri, M. (1985) Problems involved in the academic advisement process of foreign graduate students at North Texas State University. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (5-A), 1204.



Khayat-Mofid, F. (1985) A comparison of the adjustment problems of four groups of Iranian students after the 1978 revolution. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (12-A), 3550.


Khoo, P.S., Abu-Rasain, M.H., & Hornby, G. (1994) Counselling foreign students: A review of strategies. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 7 (2), 117-131. 

Focuses on the unique counseling needs of foreign students, particularly those from developing countries, due to social, emotional, and academic changes in their lives. Distinctive aspects of foreign student clients and the typical problems they face are described including adjustment to a new culture, academic differences, conflicts among fellow nationals, impact of developments in home countries, and cross-cultural male-female relationships. Specific strategies for counseling foreign students are suggested in the context of issues such as stereotyping, situational and cultural factors, and culturally-based differences in approaches to counseling. Effective counseling strategies include explaining the adjustment process, modifying one's communication style, and dealing with the emotional effects of adjustment. [PsycINFO]


Khouzam, N.N. (1987) The adjustment process of Hispanic students at the University of Florida, 1985-1986. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (11-A), 4003-4004.


Kidder, L.H. (1992, Fall) Requirements for being "Japanese": Stories of returnees. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 16 (4), 383-393. 

After living outside Japan for 1 to 10 yrs, 33 students at a US university with a campus in Tokyo and 12 students at a Japanese university with special courses for returnees were interviewed and reflected on how they were transformed. Some transformations were short-lived physical changes in hair and clothing; some were visible behavioral changes in how they walked or moved their arms or faces. The more serious changes were in interpersonal styles and expressions, changes that make them seem "un-Japanese." The returnees were ambivalent about the latter changes; they recognized the problems, but were reluctant to suppress or give up entirely the newly acquired aspects of themselves. [PsycINFO]


Kilinc, A., & Granello, P.F. (2003) Overall Life Satisfaction and Help-Seeking Attitudes of Turkish College Students in the United States: Implications for College Counselors. Journal of College Counseling, 6 (1), 56-68. 


This study examined the effects of acculturation, beliefs about mental illness, and selected demographic variables on the help-seeking attitudes of 120 Turkish students who were attending college in the United States. The authors maintain that if mental health professionals increase their understanding of Turkish international students, they can then develop more effective services for this population. [ERIC]



Kim, H.K. (1983) A comparative study of perceptions of foreign undergraduate students, selected faculty, and student personnel staff of the campus environment of Michigan State University. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 44 (3-A), 682-683.


Kim, J. (1997) A qualitative study of friendships and student-faculty relationships: Experiences and perspectives of Korean international students studying in the United States. Dissertation Abstracts International, 57 (7-B), 4783. 

Experiences and perceptions among a group of Korean international students studying in the United States were examined in terms of friendships and student-faculty relationships. The study used a qualitative approach and was guided by cross-cultural and cultural learning perspectives. Semi-structured interviews conducted in the Korean language were used for data collection. From a research population of 72 Korean international students enrolled at a large Midwestern university, 24 were selected using purposeful sampling, 6 from each of the four identified subgroups. These subgroups were male and female undergraduates and male and female graduates. Participant experiences and perceptions concerning closest friendships with Koreans back home and those concerning relationships with American and co-national peers were compared. Terms of comparison included relationship durability, mutuality, instrumentality versus affectivity, and confrontation/conflict management. Also compared were participant experiences and perceptions concerning Korean faculty with those concerning American faculty. Salient aspects compared were guidance/leading, tending, role-modeling, and being authoritarian versus being egalitarian. Individual variations were described according to participants' conceptions and personal preferences, within the dimensions of interpersonal boundaries and personal autonomy. Valuing of relatedness and interdependence emerged as an overriding theme. However, differing visions and preferences were expressed concerning the specific terms of interpersonal relating. American peer groups were perceived as overemphasizing autonomy, whereas co-national peer groups were perceived as overemphasizing relatedness, with neither group adequately honoring both. The ideal professor was envisioned as competent, caring, and authoritative. American faculty were perceived as overlooking students' needs for relatedness, whereas Korean faculty were perceived as neglecting autonomy. [PsycINFO]


Kim, S.Y. (1993) Expectations about counseling among international students from East Asian countries and a comparison of directive and nondirective counseling strategies on their perceptions of counselor effectiveness. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 53 (12-A), 4211.


Komiya, N., & Eells, G.T. (2001, Fall) Predictors of attitudes toward seeking counseling among international students. Journal of College Counseling, 4 (2), 153-160.

This study investigated predictors of international students' attitudes toward seeking counseling. One hundred twenty-one international students responded to mailed questionnaires. Results indicate that being female, having greater openness to emotions, and having had prior counseling experience were significant predictors of more open attitudes toward seeking counseling. [PsycINFO]


Konyu-Fogel, G. (1994) The academic adjustment of international students by country of origin at a land-grant university in the United States. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 54 (11-A), 3946.


Krishnan, L.A., & Hoon, L.H. (2002) Diaries: Listening to "Voices" from the Multicultural Classroom. ELT Journal, 56 (3), 227-39.


Examines evidence from foreign student learner diaries to identify factors inherent in moving to another country and culture. Explores how these may affect students' language learning and suggests ways in which teachers and course designers need to take account of them.  [ERIC]



Kujara, K. (1982) Communication patterns of Thai students in the process of acculturation. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (4-A), 964.



Kumagai, F. (1977) Personality and social structural influences on attitudes and social relations of Japanese scholars in America and Japan. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 37 (8-A), 5382-5383.



Kumar, K., & Strandholm, K. (2002) American Business Education--Effect on the Ethical Orientation of Foreign Students. Journal of Education for Business, 77 (6), 345-50. 


Business students in U.S. universities (72 Anglo-American, 87 Latin American, 78 Asian, and 69 Arab) completed the Survey of Ethical Theoretic Aptitudes. Significant differences were found beteen newly arrived foreign students and those with longer tenure in the United States. More exposure to a new environment and sustained education influenced changes in values. [ERIC]


Kwan, K.K., Sodowsky, G.R., & Ihle, G.M. (1994) Worldviews of Chinese international students: An extension and new findings. Journal of College Student Development, 35 (3), 190-197. 

Investigated worldview differences between a sample of international students, including 110 from Mainland China, 44 from Taiwan, and 16 from Hong Kong who were studying at 3 large Midwestern universities. Data were collected from responses to the Scale to Assess World Views; the 2 factors on which this study focused included Endeavoring Self and Harmonizing Self. Results showed that the students from Mainland China scored significantly higher on the Endeavoring Self than those from Hong Kong. Male and female Chinese international students did not score significantly differently on the 2 worldview dimensions. None of the students varied significantly from each other in terms of age, marital status, year in school, frequency of spoken English, fluency of spoken English, family influence on decisions, or extent of friends from their native country. [PsycINFO]


Lakey, P.N. (1989) Communication/social difficulty of Thai students in the process of cultural adaptation. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 50 (4-A), 827-828.


Lam, K.F. (1997) Friendship formation in the United States: Experience of Taiwanese students. Dissertation Abstracts International, 58 (5-A), 1552. 

The purpose of this study is to learn about the social relationships of international students. Chinese students from Taiwan who had enrolled in the University of Minnesota--Twin Cities for two to five years were recruited as the subject pool. Eighteen Respondents composed the final pool. Data were collected through face-to-face, open-ended interviews to obtain comprehensive information regarding social relationships. Possible barriers, facilitators, and motivations for forming or not forming these relationships were examined. All Respondents were interviewed as second time to verify the themes identified through qualitative analysis of the data from the first set of interviews. Twenty-six Themes describing the context in which international students make friends in the United States, and the factors affecting these friendships, emerged from the interview data. Generally international students from Taiwan were very interested, in the beginning of their sojourn, in making new friends as they experienced loneliness and all kinds of changes. In time, this motivation waned. However, 'Opportunity to interact' and 'shared experiences and similarities' were two key positive factors for friendship development. Although most Respondents agreed that they could be friends with people regardless of their nationality or ethnicity, language and cultural differences means extra effort and time must be expended for one to interact with Americans. The result was that these interactions were stressful. In contrast, the Respondents felt that interactions with Asian international students were comfortable and rewarding. The Respondents indicated that Americans who showed understanding of their culture and took the initiative to interact made relationship development easier. The Respondents also preferred one-on-one individual interactions over group interactions. Findings of the current study support previous studies which found language and cultural differences as the main barriers in cross-cultural relationship development. The author of the current study suggests that addressing the similarities between two cultures, opportunity for individual interactions, and a give-and-take relationship with mutual interest, respect, and acceptance are crucial for cross-cultural relationship building. In addition, this study implies that a social network with fellow nationals provides a sense of belonging which facilitates international student adjustment. [PsycINFO]


Lam, Z.K. (1983) Assessing the counseling needs of foreign students of English. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 44 (3-A), 674.


Larbi, R.K. (1990) Student advisors' perceptions of social adjustment among international students. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 51 (6-A), 1852-1853.


Larsen, K.S., Killifer, C., Csepeli, G., Krumov, K., et al. (1992) National identity: A new look at an old issue. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 7 (2), 309-322.  

2,027 Ss representing 9 distinct domestic groups and foreign students responded to questions about national identity. Results showed consistency in the placement of responses into 10 major national identity components. There was an apparent concordance between foreign students' and domestic groups' perceptions of US national identity. This adds a dimension of face validity to the content analysis. There was a strong concordance in the rankings of the 10 components across all participating groups. This would suggest common identity elements that transcend sociopolitical differences. The Hungarian (155 Ss), Bulgarian (128 Ss), and Greek (24 Ss) samples of university students yielded both unique national identity components and some concordance. Spontaneous representations of national identity appear to reflect primarily institutionalized nationalism and cultural identity. [PsycINFO]


Larson, D.L. (1985) Counseling approach preference of Latin American international undergraduate students and U.S. American undergraduate students. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (5-A), 1194.


Laughrin, D.M. (1999) An examination of Asian international students' perceptions of stressful situations and helpful responses. Dissertation Abstracts International, 60 (1-B), 0370.

The purpose of this study was to contribute to the literature on international student adjustment to college by using multidimensional scaling (MDS) to uncover the dimensions that Asian international students use in conceptualizing stressful situations and helpful individuals. Individual differences in the application of these dimensions were also examined to investigate differences in how various student groups conceptualize their experience in the United States. At the end of the fall semester, 63 undergraduate international students provided 107 examples of stressful situations and 82 examples of helpful individuals. These situations and individuals provided stimuli for a paired comparison procedure completed by an additional 86 Asian international students. The paired comparison results were analyzed using multidimensional scaling techniques and the resulting geometrical picture was used to study the dimensions underlying Asian international students' perceptions of stressful situations and helpful individuals. In addition, two Bipolar Rating Scales were developed as a way to quantitatively label the dimensions that fell out of the qualitative data in the MDS analysis. The stressful situations MDS analysis suggested three underlying dimensions which were intuitively and statistically labeled: interpersonal-academic, cultural adjustment-general adjustment and little control-some control. Both gender and cultural differences were noted on the interpersonal-academic dimension with women using this dimension more than men and East Asian international students using this dimension less than individuals from other countries. The helpful individuals MDS analysis also resulted in three underlying dimensions which were intuitively and statistically labeled: professionally known-personally-known, general support-cultural support and low authority-high authority. Year differences were noted on the personally known-professionally known dimension, with sophomores using this dimension more than freshmen. The situations x individuals MDS analysis confirmed the labels used by judges in the first two analyses and provided information on who Asian international students perceive as helpful in stressful situations. The results suggested that more personally known helpers, such as close friends, family members and cultural support, were perceived as being the most helpful to students in almost every situation. Taking these results into consideration, implications for counselors and other university personnel interested in helping international students are discussed. [PsycINFO]


Leavell, J.P. (2002) Coping skills patterns of international college students. Dissertation Abstracts International, 62 (9-B), 4275. 

Previous studies have indicated that studying in a foreign country often creates a considerable level of stress, anxiety, and depression. Furthermore, a significant body of research demonstrates that international students often experience moderate to severe clinical depression and loneliness. The present study examined how international students differ in their response to the novelty and ambiguity inherent in the experience of adapting to a new culture. For the purpose of this study, the international student population at a southern university was examined. International students enrolled in U.S. colleges and universities form a substantial proportion of the student population. The majority of these students come from Asia, and more often they pursue degrees in business, management and engineering. The international student population has special educational, social, and cultural needs. Several studies have found that international students face many difficulties in the adjustment to higher education in the United States. The purpose of this study was to contribute to the literature on international students' coping skills patterns when experiencing the novelty and ambiguity associated with differences in three coping skills patterns (problem-solving, seeking social support, and avoidance), which were identified and examined. The study also investigated whether the following demographic attributes-(a) gender, (b) length of residency, (c) communication, (d) discussion when experiencing a problem, and (e) level of adjustment-affected international students in the process of coping with life at the university. Subjects in the study were enrolled at a predominantly black Southern university. A convenient sample of 160 respondents, 62 males and 98 females, ranging between 18 and 50 years of age were recruited from various sectors of the university. Students took approximately 45 minutes to answer questions in the Likert format on the Coping Strategy Indicator (CSI) designed to measure the degrees of coping available to each person. Additionally, students provided demographic information on a student questionnaire, which was devised by the researcher. Results of the study indicated significant differences in the scores of U.S. females and international females in the seeking social support category. Pearson Correlation Coefficients analysis on avoidance and Length of Residency suggested a significant relationship between the U.S. and international students. Other significant findings include a higher degree of association between citizenship and fluency in another language, and communication problems and citizenship. [PsycINFO]


LeCastre, R.J. (1987) Foreign student attitude formation toward the United States. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 48 (6-A), 1430.


Lee, H.S. (1974) International student's self-concept and its relationship to academic and non-academic adjustment. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 34 (8-A, Pt 1), 4749.


Lee, M.Y. (1984) Judgments of significant others and self-concept of students from developing nations. Journal of Social Psychology, 122 (1), 127-134. 

Examined 3 views of self-concept as perceived by 1,897 college students from developing nations at selected US universities with regard to their academic performance, intelligence, and physical appearance. These 3 views were (1) that held by friends in their home countries as perceived by the Ss (one set of significant others); (2) that held by US students as perceived by the Ss (another set of significant others); and (3) that held by the Ss themselves. All Ss completed mail questionnaires. In all 3 aspects of self, Ss perceived the image of themselves held by friends in their home countries as highest, that held by US students as lowest, and that held by themselves as ranking between the two. Additional variations in their perception of the self-concept were found in terms of their student classification, sponsorship, sex, and country of origin. [PsycINFO]


Lee, M.Y. (1986) Prestige of home country and self-concept of students from four developing countries. Journal of Social Psychology, 126 (4), 485-491. 

Examined 3 views of prestige of home countries held by 517 university students in the US from Taiwan, Iran, Nigeria, and Venezuela. The 3 views encompassed perceptions of views held by friends in their home countries, perceptions of views held by students in the US, and Ss' own perceptions and were examined in relation to Ss' perceptions of their academic performance, intelligence, and physical appearance. Overall, the prestige ratings were most strongly correlated with the Ss' physical appearance and intelligence ratings. [PsycINFO]


Lee, R.M., Falbo, T., Doh, H.S., Park, S.Y. (2001) The Korean Diasporic Experience: Measuring Ethnic Identity in the United States and China. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 7 (3), 207-16.    


Korean undergraduates living in the United States and in China were administered the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure to assess their ethnic identity. Korean Americans had higher scores on ethnic identity and were more likely to be classified as bicultural, indicating that they were able to retain their cultural heritage while incorporating aspects of their new country. [ERIC]



Lee, S.J. (1983) The analysis of foreign students' attitudes toward the United States at the University of Florida. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (10-A), 3195.



Leesavan, A.T. (1978) Cultural differences in communication patterns: A comparison of Thais and Americans. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 38 (9-A), 5276-5277.



Leitner, P.S. (1983) The effects of demographic and interactional factors on the satisfaction of foreign graduate students at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (10-A), 3234.


Leong, F.T., & Sedlacek, W.E. (1986) A comparison of international and U.S. students' preferences for help sources. Journal of College Student Personnel, 27 (5), 426-430. 

A questionnaire listing 12 sources of help was administered to 194 international and 179 US 1st-semester freshmen. Ss were asked to indicate their preferences for sources of help for specific problems or types of problems. Results indicate that international Ss were more likely than US Ss to prefer faculty members and counselors and less likely to prefer friends for help with all kinds of problems. [PsycINFO]


Leong, F.T., & Sedlacek, W.E. (1989) Academic and career needs of international and United States college students. Journal of College Student Development, 30 (2), 106-111. 

Administered a needs assessment survey to 215 incoming undergraduate international students (ISs) and 1,625 US students (USSs). Two general patterns emerged: ISs expressed greater academic and career needs than did USSs, and the rank-ordering of relative importance of these needs differed. It is suggested that the ISs' lower need for career skills may result from job seeking skills and job opportunities that do not readily transfer to their home country. [PsycINFO]


Lesser, E.L. (1999) Predicting adjustment to college: A comparison between international and American students. Dissertation Abstracts International, 59 (9-B), 5093.

Predictors of adjustment to college in the U.S. were compared in three groups of students: 85 international students from Latin America who came to study in the U.S. without their parents, 101 American students living with their parents, and 99 American students living at least 5 hours away from home by car. The total sample of 285 students ranged from 17 to 21 years of age and were attending their freshman or sophomore year in college. The possible predictors of adjustment to college investigated were demographics, reasons/motivation for choosing a particular institution, and attachment to parents. Main findings showed that attachment to parents emerged as the most consistent best predictor of adjustment to college across the three groups of students. For American students living with parents, it was usually the affective quality of the relationship with parents that mattered, where the more positive feelings towards the parents, the better the adjustment. For International and American students living away from home, the perception of parents as facilitators of independence or sources of emotional support were the most important for adaptive college functioning. Although autonomy and independence may have different meanings within different cultures, International and American students who live away from home share in common the difficult task of reaching a balance between separating and becoming independent and, at the same time, attempting to maintain the connection with parents who can provide the constant and safe reassurance that can help promote maturity when attaining adulthood and planning a career. [PsycINFO]


Lever, J. (1983) Change in foreign graduate students' attitudes about the United States and its citizens: A case study. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (9-A), 3123.


Lew, W.J. (1974) Cross-cultural education and attitude change: Asian students' attitudes toward America. Bulletin of the Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica, 38, 1-19. 

Studied the attitudes toward America of 390 Asian students on 10 US campuses, using a questionnaire developed by the investigator in a quasi-longitudinal design. The questionnaire contained 40 items, each with 2 7-point scales to measure both the S's present attitude and his attitude before coming to the US. The questionnaire also had 23 closed questions and one open-ended question to secure additional information. A control group of 82 US-bound Chinese students was used to test the accuracy of the recalled "before" response of the experimental Ss. The main results indicate that the Asian students' attitude and its change varied with the aspects of areas of American society and culture. [PsycINFO]


Li, X. (1991) Chinese students in the United States: Their uses and perceptions of American television. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 52 (5-A), 1556-1557.


Liberman, K. (1994, Spring) Asian student perspectives on American university instruction. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 18 (2), 173-192. 

Interviewed 680 Asian undergraduates regarding their experiences with learning at an American university. Although Ss were highly critical of American social life in general, most expressed approval of their educational experience. This approval is based on freedom of choice in the course of study selection and on the democratic structure of professor-student interaction, especially during classroom instruction (CI). Although the majority of Ss expressing opinions on the matter enjoyed the opportunity for relations with their professors, they were also critical of the informality and lack of respect with which American professors are treated. CI often suffered from a loss of focus. Ss expressed enthusiasm for the open, dialectical predilection of American professors, who were said to be interested in making contact with the processes of thinking and analysis of their students. Training in classroom dialectics is recommended as part of the orientation for Asian students. [PsycINFO]


Lin, L. (2002) The Learning Experiences of Chinese Graduate Students in American Social Sciences Programs. Higher Education. 


This study explored the learning problems Chinese graduate students face in U.S. social science classrooms and how they cope with these problems. The focus was on the conflicts students perceived between their own learning styles and the American way of teaching and learning. Interviews were conducted with three Chinese graduate students in the United States and the researcher also drew on her own experiences as a graduate student from China in the United States. Course assignments and course syllabi were also collected from the participants. Analyses of these data show that when these students could use their prior knowledge as resources for their individual learning, they had positive learning experiences. Learning challenges for these students included language proficiency in classroom discussions, a lack of training in research skills, a lack of exposure to current research in related fields, and a lack of cultural knowledge or understanding. These students felt they had no close friends among Americans because they had few common topics of interest. All of these participants had been excellent students in China and were accustomed to Chinese teaching and learning styles, so that the open and individualistic atmosphere in the U.S. classroom had a great impact on them. While they found it easy to use statistics skills, using university facilities and writing a reference list were difficult for them. Once they overcame these frustrations, they found their learning experiences to be rewarding. [ERIC]


Lindsay, F.C. (1994) Anticipation: A qualitative study of returning international students on the USC campus. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 54 (7-A), 2515.


Lippincott, J.A. (1991) The effects of stress management training on somatic and cognitive anxiety in international and American university students. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 52 (5-B), 2759-2760.


Lippincott, J.A., & Mierzwa, J.A. (1995) Propensity for seeking counseling services: A comparison of Asian and American undergraduates. Journal of American College Health, 43 (5), 201-204. 

 Examined 20 Asian and 39 American college students' propensity for seeking counseling at an American university, using the Somaticization scale of the Brief Symptom Inventory as the criterion measure. Asian Ss were more likely than American Ss were to report that they would seek counseling services when they experience somatic discomfort. Asian Ss scored significantly higher on inclination for seeking counseling than did the American Ss. It is suggested that college student service providers should be alert to Asian students who present physical complaints as a means of seeking relief from underlying depression or other emotional conflicts. [PsycINFO]


Liston, A., & Salts, C.J. (1988, Fall) Mate selection values: A comparison of Malaysian and United States students. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 19 (3), 361-370. 

 139 Malaysian and 218 US undergraduates at a US university rated 21 mate selection traits and completed a demographic questionnaire. Data indicate that love was rated higher than any other variable for both groups, regardless of sex. Both groups gave maturity and dependability high ratings. Religion, parental approval, social graces, chastity, and innocence were rated differently by Malay and US males and females. Malaysian males rated desire for a home, desire for children, cooking and housekeeping, and financial prospects significantly higher than did US males. The Malaysian Ss showed greater homogeneity between males and females in the rating of traits than did the US sample due to US males devaluation of certain traits. [PsycINFO]


Litrenta, C.L. (1986) A quantitative assessment of the value orientations of Iranian students studying at selected universities in southern California. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (4-A), 1220.


Liu, G. (1997) The attitudes of Chinese students at the University of Tennessee toward the computer. Dissertation Abstracts International, 58 (6-A), 2104. 

 As computer literacy and computer use become more and more important in the educational environment, the attitudes of international students toward computers may play an important role in their academic success in this country. The study investigated the attitudes of Chinese students at The University of Tennessee, Knoxville toward computers and explored the possible effects of gender, age and computer experience on these students' attitudes toward computers. The primary instrument used in the study was Drs. Loyd and Gressard's Computer Attitude Scale. The scoring strategy results in higher scores on the computer anxiety subscale corresponding to lower anxiety, and higher scores on the confidence and computer liking subscale corresponding to higher confidence and liking. The demographic questions in the survey provided information regarding subjects' gender, age, and their experience with computers. The collected data were analyzed by using the SPSS computer statistics program SPSS. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted for subscores of computer attitudes on each of the factors examined in the current study (e.g. age, computer experience, and gender). The study found that the general computer attitudes of Chinese students currently studying at The University of Tennessee were positive. The study found that the age factor doesn't appear to make any difference on the Chinese students' attitudes toward computers. Nor does gender appear to have any effect on Chinese students' attitudes toward computers when the factor of computer experience was ruled out. However, the study found that there were significant differences among the groups of Chinese students with difference levels of computer experience on their attitudes toward computers, with those who had more computer experience having more positive attitudes toward computers. The current study confirmed the results of many previous studies that claim computer experience is important in determining computer attitudes. The researcher of the current study suggests that specially designed computer literacy courses for the international students could be a great help for them to quickly adapt to their new academic environment. [PsycINFO]


Liu, H. (1993) Lives of Chinese students' wives in an American university setting. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 53 (12-A), 4495.



Liu, J. (2002) Negotiating Silence in American Classrooms: Three Chinese Cases. Language and Intercultural Communication, 2 (1), 37-54. 


Focuses on three students from mainland China as part of an investigation of Asian students’ classroom communication patterns in United States universities to explore the complexities of silence, and the cultural interpretations of silence in various social contexts. Multiple functions of silence in terms of linkage, affecting, revelational, judgmental, and activating functions are explored across the three cases. [ERIC]



Liu, Z.V. (1985) A cross-cultural study on depression among foreign graduate students from six selected areas. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (6-A), 1522.


Locke, D.C., & Velasco, J. (1987) Hospitality begins with the invitation: Counseling foreign students. Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development, 15 (3), 115-119. 

Discusses difficulties that foreign students might incur when they come to American universities. It is suggested that counselors might develop outreach and counseling programs designed specifically for foreign students to help overcome ethnic barriers, promote intercultural awareness, help with communication difficulties, and help with adjustments to new social and physical environments. Five specific recommendations for counselors of foreign students are offered. It is emphasized that counselors should be adaptable and hospitable. [PsycINFO]


Locke, R.J. (1989) The interpersonal environments of students from other countries enrolled at Cornell University. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 50 (2-A), 373.


Lomak, P.P. (1985) An investigation of foreign students' awareness, utilization and satisfaction with selected student personnel services and programs at Ohio University, Athens 1983/84. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (12-A), 3499-3500.



Low, D.N. (1974) Dimensions in the identity profile of the American educated Hong Kong Chinese. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 35 (5-B), 2408-2409.



MacCalla, J.E. (1979) Psychosocial stress variables affecting international students. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 39 (11-B), 5653.


Mahadevan, L. (2003) Relationships between acculturation and career beliefs among international university students from India, China, and Korea. Dissertation Abstracts International, 63 (8-A), 2791.

The major purpose of this study was to explore the relationship(s) between acculturation and the career beliefs of international students. Data was collected at a university in Central Texas from 341 international students [Indians (N = 120), Chinese (N = 102), Korean (N = 119)]. The Indian student sample was comprised of 63 males and 57 females, the Chinese group consisted of 61 males and 41 females and the Korean sample was made up of 67 males and 52 females. The samples were identified through local churches, international clubs on campus and personal contacts. Each of the participants was administered a demographics questionnaire, an adapted version of the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale (SL-ASIA) and the Career Beliefs Inventory (CBI). Three separate data analyses were conducted based on the data collected from each country. Descriptive data based on the demographic information, the adapted SL-ASIA, and CBI scale scores are given. A factor analysis and an internal consistency analysis were conducted to determine the reliability and validity of the adapted SL-ASIA and the CBI for international students. A canonical correlational analysis employing predictor variables (demographics and the acculturation levels) and criterion variables (selected CBI Scales) was conducted to determine the extent of the relationship between acculturation and career beliefs. An Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to determine whether gender influenced or moderated this relationship. Overall, low reliabilities were found for the adapted SL-ASIA when used with the sample. Modest reliabilities were also found for the CBI scales. Unclear factor solutions emerged for both instruments based on the data from each of the samples. A low correlation was found between acculturation levels and career beliefs of the Indian, Chinese, and Korean students. Gender was not an influencing or moderating variable in this relationship. Taking into account identified limitations such as sampling issues, English language/cultural constraints of the participants, and low internal consistencies of the instruments, caution should be taken in making generalizations from this study. Based on these results and limitations, recommendations for future research and practice are provided. [PsycINFO]


Mahdavi-Harsini, S. (1982) Perceived adjustment problems of a selected sample of international students and the sources of help sought for solutions. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (8-A), 3441.



Maleki, R.B. (1993) Background and institutional factors as correlates of international graduate students' sense of well-being and written information summarization. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 53 (12-A), 4189.



Malik, S.M. (1981) Psychological modernity: A comparative study of some African and American graduate students in the midwest. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (3-B), 1153.


Mallinckrodt, B., & Leong, F.T. (1992) International graduate students, stress, and social support. Journal of College Student Development, 33 (1), 71-78. 

Studied the level of stressors and stress symptoms in the lives of 79 male and 26 female international graduate students. Results show that although all forms of graduate program support seemed to be significantly associated with lower levels of symptoms, relations with faculty members were particularly beneficial for men, whereas tangible support, relations with other students, and curriculum flexibility seemed to be most beneficial for women. Regarding family support, all types seemed to be broadly beneficial for men, whereas quality of child care had a strong negative correlation with stressful life events for women, and problems in living conditions and inadequate financial resources were strongly related to depression for women. [PsycINFO]


Manansala, E.M. (1977) Differences in style of coping with stress among male and female international students at an urban university. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 37 (8-A), 4867.


Manese, J.E., Sedlacek, W.E., & Leong, F.T. (1988) Needs and perceptions of female and male international undergraduate students. Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development, 16 (1), 24-29. 

96 incoming international university undergraduates (48% were female) completed a written questionnaire exploring differences in needs and perceptions. Findings indicate that female Ss expected to have a harder time at school, were more easily discouraged, did not act on beliefs, and did not see themselves viewed as leaders. Both male and female Ss had a positive view of the university and of the support they received from family and friends. Results also show a greater need in female Ss to talk to a counselor about career plans. All Ss had similar views on sex roles; however, female Ss also reported greater needs to become more comfortable in speaking up in class and to take better class notes. [PsycINFO]


Manning, B., & Tuguz, H.K. (1992, Fall) A cross-cultural comparison of students' connotative meanings for alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and hashish. Journal of Alcohol & Drug Education, 38 (1), 86-97. 

Explored the usefulness of the semantic differential technique as a means of comparing connotative meanings of alcohol, cocaine, hashish, and marijuana held by 29 Indonesian and American graduate students. Differences were found between Indonesian and American Ss on 6 adjective pairs for alcohol, 4 for marijuana, and 3 for cocaine and hashish. Indonesian and American Ss also differed in their identification of the 4 study substances as strong or weak, modern or traditional, aggressive or passive, unacceptable or acceptable, and stimulating or boring. [PsycINFO]


Mansour, R.H. (1977) Comparisons of international student potential clients' and counselors' responses to questions related to cross-cultural counseling. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 38 (5-A), 2559.



Mantakara, K. (1975) Attitudes and opinions of Thai students in the United States: An analysis. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 36 (3-A), 1219.


Marks, M.S. (1987) Preparing international students in the United States for reentering the home country. Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development, 15 (3), 120-128. 

Examines the preparatory needs of international students from developing countries in the areas of cultural and professional adjustments as they reenter their home countries. It is suggested that steps be taken through seminars or workshops to address the needs of these students and prepare them for the challenges they might face. It is recommended that more be done to make the skills acquired in the US more applicable to needs in the home country and to retain greater communication between the university and international alumni. Students should be made aware of changing socioeconomic and political situations at home, as well as their own changes in attitudes, expectations, ambitions, and sense of independence. [PsycINFO]


Marshall-Bradley, T. (1992) The adaptation of Afrikan students to Iowa State University. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 53 (3-A), 742.


Martinez, G.N. (1991) The relationship between acculturation and anxiety among Mexican graduate students in the United States and France. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 51 (12-A, Pt 1), 4067.


Martsolf, D.S. (1992) The relationship between adjustment, health, and perception of care in two groups of cross-cultural student migrants. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 53 (2-B), 770.


Matsui, M. (1992) A case study of female foreign students from Japan and the People's Republic of China at an American university: Change in their gender role perceptions. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 52 (11-A), 4117.


Maurus, D.O. (1991) Variables involved in the adjustment of Pakistani students attending a land grant university in the Northwest. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 51 (10-A), 3340.


Mbah, J.U. (1986) Coping with stress: Nigerian students in America. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (12-A, Pt 1), 3604.


McAndrew, F.T. (1987) Decoding visual dominance among Pakistani college students. Journal of Social Psychology, 127 (3), 317-320. 

20 Pakistani undergraduates studying in the US viewed videotapes of a male stimulus person, whose visual behavior was systematically varied, engaged in a conversation with another male. The experiment attempted to replicate cross-culturally the finding that judgments about status and dominance are consistently related to patterns of visual dominance behavior, defined by the ratio of the proportion of time spent looking while speaking to the proportion of time spent looking while listening. The stimulus person displayed 3 different visual dominance ratios. Results indicate no evidence that the Ss responded to the differences in gaze patterns in the same manner as American students in previous studies. [PsycINFO]


McMillen, P.J. (1982) Problems of international students at the George Washington University. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (7-A), 3018.



Mehrinfar, N. (1982) Academic performance of selected undergraduate foreign students as affected by age, sex, and self-concept. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (1-A), 89-90.


Meleis, A.I. (1982) Arab students in western universities: Social properties and dilemmas. Journal of Higher Education, 53 (4), 439-447. 

Describes some of the major properties that characterize Arabs and explores some of the dilemmas that face Arab students, trainees, scientists, and health professionals upon arrival in the US. Strategies to help them cope with cultural shock and to enhance their success potential are discussed. [PsycINFO]


Mendonca, L. (1982) Group counseling: Its effects on the perception of self and others and on the adjustment of students from India. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (9-A), 3873.


Merta, R.J. (1990) An investigation of the relative effectiveness of two directive counseling styles for use with foreign students in new student orientation. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 50 (9-B), 4227-4228.


Merta, R.J., Ponterotto, J.G., & Brown, R.D. (1992) Comparing the Effectiveness of Two Directive Styles in the Academic Counseling of Foreign Students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 39 (2), 214-218.

  Asian foreign students (34 men and 16 women), 19-44 years old, participated in a comparative study on the effectiveness of 2 directive academic counseling styles (authoritative vs. collaborative) on foreign students' ratings of peer counselor effectiveness. A within-group variable, acculturation level, was also examined. High-acculturated foreign students rated authoritative peer counselors higher in overall effectiveness, whereas low-acculturated foreign students rated collaborative peer counselors higher. Results support the importance of taking into account within-group differences among culturally diverse clients when conducting research. [PsycINFO]


Michailidis, M.P. (1996) A study of factors that contribute to stress within international students. Dissertation Abstracts International, 57 (6-A), 2333. 

Individual factors that contribute to stress for international students has been researched continuously over many years (Spradley and Phillips, 1972: Marville, 1981: Day and Hajj, 1986; Locke and Velasco, 1987; Pedersen, 1991; Chang Leong and Geist, 1993, Hayes and Lin, 1994, Sandhu and Asrabadi, 1994). These findings indicate that a number of factors contribute to stress within international students. However, little research has been directed at isolating key factors, or combination of factors which are related to stress. The purpose of this study was to explore, through survey research methodology, what factors, including students' academic Status (Undergraduate and Graduate) and students' country of Origin (First, Second, and Third World), were related to acculturative stress as measured by the existing Acculturative Stress Scale For International Students (ASSIS). A statistical design utilizing statistical correlations, multiple regression, analyses of variance and factor analysis was utilized. The variables investigated included: (1) independent variables: students' academic Status and country of Origin, (2) dependent variables: the 36 ASSIS variables, and the Likert-Type Items on this researcher's survey. Subjects participating in this study were 118 full-time undergraduate and graduate students, enrolled during the Spring semester of 1995, at a northeastern university in the United States. Two instruments were utilized in this study: The Acculturative Stress Scale For International Students (ASSIS) and this researcher's constructed survey instrument. Major findings revealed that: (1) For international students the most frequently experienced acculturative stress factors were: (a) Perceived Discrimination, which included alienation; (b) Perceived Safety, which included culture shock; and (c) Adjustment to the American culture which included homesickness and feelings of loneliness; (2) Origin played a major role in the degree of stress they suffered in t [PsycINFO]


Miller, D.F., & Harwell, D.J. (1983) International students at an American university: Health problems and status. Journal of School Health, 53 (1), 45-49. 

International students commonly have health problems related to the frustration caused by difficulties in communication, adjustment to an alien life-style and diet, social isolation, and a tendency to somaticize emotional problems. A survey of 81 foreign students in the US showed that Ss commonly suffered from tiredness, homesickness, and insomnia, and many were unaware of available health services both on campus and in the community. Some differences were noted between Ss from the Middle East, Asia, and Latin America. Results highlight the need for programs to educate foreign students about the US health care system. [PsycINFO]


Mirzadeh, S.A. (2000) The role of hardiness and perceptions of social support in the early college adjustment of international students. Dissertation Abstracts International, 61 (2-B), 1091.

Change is a constant, though often gradual, characteristic of most environments. Environmental change is often precipitated by relational factors such as divorce, deaths in the family, or incarceration; by social factors such as crime, riots, and revolutions; by economical factors such as recessions and unemployment; and by natural factors such as earthquakes and floods. It can also be produced by experimental manipulations. Occasionally, however, significant and rapid change is induced through the insertion of an organism into a new environment. International students are an example of a naturally occurring population that experiences a high degree of environmental change in just such a manner. Change in life circumstances has been demonstrated to elicit a stress reaction in some individuals. Research in the past twenty years has consistently demonstrated a link between exposure to stress and the development of a variety of physical and psychological symptoms. This association, though significant, is not universal. The generally cited correlation index is of the order of 0.30. In the past two decades, the roles of a range of individual differences that purportedly influence the stress-illness link have been examined. Hardiness and perceptions of social support have emerged in the literature as two such factors. According to the literature, the prevalence of physical and psychological symptoms among international students is similar to the reported rates of these symptoms among other stress-exposed groups. This implies that although a portion of the international student population exhibits vulnerability to the development of stress related symptoms, another segment remains relatively symptom free. As well as provide descriptive data on the health status of new international students enrolled in a large mid-Western university, this study examined the roles of hardiness and perceptions of social support in the adjustment of this population to environmental change. [PsycINFO]


Misra, R., & Castillo, L.G. (2004) Academic Stress Among College Students: Comparison of American and International Students. International Journal of Stress Management, 11 (2), 132-148.

  This study compared academic stressors and reactions to stressors between American and international students using Gadzella's Life Stress Inventory (B. M. Gadzella, 1991). Five categories of academic stressors (i.e. , frustrations, conflicts, pressures, changes, and self-imposed) and four categories describing reactions to these stressors (i.e., physiological, emotional, behavioral, and cognitive) were examined. The sample consisted of 392 international and American students from 2 Midwestern universities. American students reported higher self-imposed stressors and greater behavioral reactions to stressors than international students. Respondent's status (American or international) and interaction of status and stressors emerged as the 2 strongest predictors of their behavioral, emotional, physiological, and cognitive reaction to stressors. Five stressors attained statistical significance in the regression model. The findings emphasize the need to recognize cultural differences in stress management. Implications for mental health providers in the university arena are discussed. [PsycINFO]


Misra, R., Crist, M., & Burant, C.J.  (2003) Relationships Among Life Stress, Social Support, Academic Stressors, and Reactions to Stressors of International Students in the United States. International Journal of Stress Management, 10 (2), 137-157.

This study examined the relationships among 4 constructs--life stress (primary stressor), academic stressors (secondary stressor), perceived social support (stress mediator), and reactions to stressors (stress outcome)--among 143 international students. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the relationships among latent and measured variables in the conceptual model. Results indicated no significant difference in academic and life stressors by gender. However, women exhibited higher reactions to stressors than men. Higher levels of academic stressors were predicted by higher levels of life stress and by lower levels of social support. Higher academic stressors predicted greater reactions to stressors. All of the regression weights in the model were statistically significant, and the model's predictors accounted for 82% of the variance in reactions to stressor. [PsycINFO]


Mizuno, S. (1998) The relationship of guilt, shame, and control to the academic adjustment of Japanese students in the United States. Dissertation Abstracts International, 58 (8-A), 3002.

This study examined Weiner's (1985, 1986) attributional theory, using structural equation modeling with LISREL (Joreskog & Sorbom, 1996). This study also used causal attributions (ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck) for success outcome and failure outcome as exogenous (independent) variables and proneness to guilt, proneness to shame, and academic adjustment as endogenous (dependent) variables. Of 483 survey questionnaires mailed to Japanese college students' home addresses in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area, 43% (n = 218) were returned. The survey questionnaires (consisting of the instruments on proneness to guilt, proneness to shame, causal attributions, academic adjustment, and demographic questions) were used to explore relationships among causal attributions, guilt, shame, and academic adjustment. This study found that (a) the participants attributed causes of both failure and success outcomes chiefly to effort, (b) failure attribution had significant effects on proneness to guilt and proneness to shame, (c) self-rated English ability and noncognitive variables for academic adjustment were positively and significantly correlated, and (d) neither causal attributions nor proneness to guilt or proneness to shame had the significant effects on academic adjustment. The findings of this study suggested that (a) self-rated English ability was the major indicator of academic adjustment, (b) effort ascription to achievement failure had significant effects on proneness to guilt and proneness to shame, and (c) academic adjustment was not a direct consequence of attributions, proneness to guilt, or proneness to shame. [PsycINFO]


Moftakhar, H. (1976) A descriptive study of some of the problems of Iranian students attending Oklahoma State University. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 36 (10-A), 6559.



Mohseni-Tabrizi, A. (1984) Two faces of alienation: A study of the Iranian students' activism and passivity in American universities. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (3-A), 953-954.


Mori, S. (2000, Spring) Addressing the mental health concerns of international students. Journal of Counseling & Development, 78 (2), 137-144.

Examines the sources of international students' psychological concerns, the reasons for their notable underutilization of existing counseling services, and the ways to provide more culturally sensitive services. It is suggested that international students on the American college campus are a diverse and increasing population whose unique concerns are traditionally overlooked. However, given the evidence that the demands for cultural adjustments frequently place international students at greater risk for various psychological problems than students in general, it is important that sufficient and readily accessible mental health services be established for them. The author contends that cultural values and beliefs held by most international students are often in direct conflict with a traditional American concept of mental health. [PsycINFO]


Moshfegh, M.K. (1990) An examination of the social, academic, and personal problems encountered by Iranian students enrolled at Indiana University in 1980-81. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 51 (3-A), 757.


Moss, M.L. (1987) A comparison of Missionary Kids, international students, and American students on measures of loneliness and college adjustment. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (8-A), 2893.


Motarassed, A. (1982) Adaptation of foreign students to a land-grant university in the United States. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (7-A), 3078.



Motoike, J., & Stockdale, M. (2001) Japanese International Students' Attitudes toward Acquaintance Rape. Counseling and Student Services.  


This study looked at the influence of an Asian sociocultural variable, loss of face or social integrity, as a predictor of perceptions of acquaintance rape among Japanese students. In addition to the expected associations between gender, sexism, and perceptions of rape, loss of face was predicted to interact with the perpetrator's reference group such that an aggression-enhancing reference group would reduce, and an aggression-inhibiting reference group would heighten perceptions of rape in a given scenario. Surveys were distributed to Japanese students in linguistics classes and Japanese student associations at various Midwestern universities. The results support gender differences in attitudes toward women and attitudes toward rape victims. The loss of face by reference group interaction was not a significant predictor of the participants' own victim blaming or attitudes toward rape victims, but it was a significant predictor of perception of perpetrator blame in the expected direction. Examining cultural factors may provide insight into developing preventive measures against acquaintance rape and appropriate orientations for Japanese international students. [ERIC]



Moy, T. (1985) An exploration of the vocational values and needs of Chinese students. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (9-B), 3078.



Mtebe, W.L. (1985) Hierarchy of adjustment problems as perceived by African students and international student advisors. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (7-A), 2007.



Mubarak, A.M. (1985) A study of Kuwaiti students and their adjustment problems in the United States. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (10-A), 3215.



Mukolu, A.N. (1985) Problems of international students as perceived by international students in two selected public institutions in Texas. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (5-A), 1206.


Mulugeta, T. (1987) The effects of demographic variables and academic success on the satisfaction of African students at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (8-A), 2893-2894.


Munywoki, S.M. (1980) The impact of western education on Kenyans in the United States. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 40 (11-A), 5796.



Murphy, J.M. (1986) An investigation into the listening strategies of ESL college students. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (9-A), 2677.



Mustafa, A.H. (1986) A study of the academic problems encountered by Saudi students at Western Michigan University. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (9-A), 2598-2599.


Naidoo, P. (1991) An analysis of the social and academic adjustment of graduate international students in the College of Education at the University of Iowa. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 51 (11-A), 3636.


Naser, S.A. (1985) The impact of the American culture on male Arab students in the United States. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (4-A), 914.


Ndirangu, W. (1994) Foreign students in United States graduate schools of social work: Their choices, expectations, and levels of satisfaction. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 54 (7-A), 2737.


Negash, W. (1989) Determinants of non-return within the international student community in the United States. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 49 (10-A), 2946.


Nelson, V.N. (1994) Adaptation of Chinese students to an American university: A study of the relationship between knowledge of American culture and the students' psychological and emotional responses to their daily experiences. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 54 (8-B), 4445.


Neuschatz, M., & Mulvey, P.J. Physics Students from Abroad in the Post-9/11 Era. AIP Report. American Inst. of Physics, College Park, MD. Statistical Research Center. 


Concerned about the impact on physics programs, the American Institute of Physics conducted a small targeted survey in 2003 covering all physics graduate programs across the United States. Responses were received from 72% of all such departments, including 75% of the 185 programs that granted doctorates in physics and 64% of the programs' that offered master's degrees in physics as their highest degree. Data show that after decades of steady increases to a peak of 55% of the physics students in the United States in 2000-2001, the population of foreign students entering graduate physics programs has declined noticeably in the past 2 years. In the past year, two-thirds of PhD-granting institutions and almost half of the master's programs report that they have accepted students who were not able to attend because of visa difficulties. About 20% of admitted foreign students were at least initially prevented from attending in the fall of 2002. The highest ranked programs were least affected, but smaller departments experienced substantial impacts. Chinese students were the group most commonly denied entrance. Even in percentage terms, Chinese, along with students from the Middle East, felt the most impact. Many departments reported major effects on course enrollments and their ability to fill openings for resident advisors and teaching assistants. Most departments are maintaining current admissions policies for now, and only a few report changes in their stance on accepting students from abroad. [ERIC]



Ng, J.T. (1981) Use of the Mooney Problem Check List for identifying psychosocial adjustment problems of international students at four universities in Colorado. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (1-A), 145-146.


Ng, L.C. (2001) Loneliness, perceived social support, and coping among international students. Dissertation Abstracts International, 62 (1-B), 558.

This study examined how international students cope with their loneliness. It was hypothesized that international students would use constructive or adaptive coping processes such as seeking social support, accepting responsibility, self-controlling, planful problem solving, and positive reappraisal to cope with their loneliness more often than other types of coping behaviors and responses including confrontive coping, distancing, and escape-avoidance coping, which are considered less adaptive coping process. It was also hypothesized that the higher the degree of loneliness an international student reported the less often he/she would use those adaptive coping processes like seeking social support, accepting responsibility, self-controlling, planful problem solving, and positive reappraisal coping processes. The available literature indicates that social support is a salient resource in coping and in alleviating one's feeling of loneliness. Consequently, it was hypothesized in this study that the more social support an international student perceives the less likely he or she will be to experience loneliness. A total of 72 international students participated in the present study: The results of this study indicated that international students in this study did report using constructive or adaptive coping processes such as seeking social support, accepting responsibility, self-controlling, planful problem solving, and positive reappraisal to cope with their loneliness more often than other types of coping behaviors and responses. The second hypothesis was partially supported by the results. While negative and statistically significant relationships between loneliness and seeking social support, planful problem solving, or positive reappraisal coping processes were found, a positive and statistically significant relationship between self-controlling and loneliness was also noted. The relationship between accepting responsibility and loneliness was not statistically significant. The third hypothesis was supported by the results of this study. Negative and statistically significant relationships between loneliness and social support, both general and relationship-specific were found. Additional analysis revealed coping might be related to gender, ethnic background, and other demographic factors. Limitations to this study related to sample size, the applicability of instruments for international populations, and the research design were discussed along with implications and recommendations for future international student research and counseling. [PsycINFO]


Nguyen, D.Q. (1996) Chinese students' views of mental health and their relation to coping strategies, well-being, and acculturation. Dissertation Abstracts International, 56 (9-B), 5179. 

The present research assessed the correlation among Chinese international students' views of mental health, coping behavior, subjective well-being, and acculturation level. Data analysis was performed on 104 Chinese international students and 108 Caucasian American students from a Midwest university. The two groups were equivalent in age, class level, and college affiliation. Four questionnaires were sent to the Chinese international students including the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale (SL-ASIA; Suinn, Rickard-Figueroa, Lew, & Vigil, 1987), assessing self-identity acculturation of Asians; a revised Mental Health Beliefs Scale (Nunnally, 1961), assessing subjects' views of mental health; the COPE scale (Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub, 1989), assessing coping strategies; and the General Well-Being Schedule (GWB; Fazio, 1977), assessing subjective well-being. The last three questionnaires were sent to the American students. Analyses of variance and discriminant analysis showed that the two groups were significantly different from each other on the set of mental health beliefs and on the set of coping strategies, but not on well-being. More so than American students, Chinese students believed that mental health was maintained by entertaining pleasant thoughts, having social and family guidance and support, exercising will power, and avoiding morbid thoughts, and that mental illness was organically based. Chinese students, more frequently than American students, adopted the strategies of denial and behavioral disengagement. More frequently than Chinese students, American students reportedly coped by relying on alcohol/drugs, religion, and humor. Based on multiple regression analyses, the relationships between acculturation and mental health beliefs, coping strategies, and well-being were non-significant, which may be due to the low variance among the Chinese students' acculturation levels. Also based on multiple regression analyses, the relationships… [PsycINFO]


Nichols, K.R., & McAndrew, F.T. (1984) Stereotyping and autostereotyping in Spanish, Malaysian, and American college students. Journal of Social Psychology, 124 (2), 179-189. 

Examined inter- and intragroup ethnic stereotyping among 18 Spanish (Barcelona, Spain), 14 Malaysian, and 66 American college students. 18 of the American college students attended school in Spain; the Malaysians were studying in the US. Ss were administered a questionnaire that measured the amount of contact each S group had had with each of the stimulus cultures. Analyses revealed significant differences in the content of the stereotypes held by each of these groups as well as distinct tendencies to see others (regardless of ethnic group) in a particular way. Results also suggest that autostereotypes (beliefs about one's own group) are as variable as stereotypes and that the amount of contact with another culture strongly influences both. The context in which this cross-cultural contact took place seemed to be an important variable. Further research at other institutions with large international student contingents is recommended. [PsycINFO]


Nicholson, M.W. (2001) Adaptation of Asian Students to American Culture. Higher Education. 


The purpose of this study was to examine how Asian students at Western Michigan University (WMU) have adjusted to U.S. culture and more specifically to life at a U.S. university. I. Owie (1982) found a high degree of social alienation among foreign students at two Midwestern U.S. universities. He recommended that universities continuously evaluate their foreign students' services programs so that they function with optimum effectiveness in making foreign students feel at home. The subjects for this study consisted of 10 Asian students at WMU who were interviewed using the Asian Student Adjustment Survey, a 22-item questionnaire developed by the investigator. The questions generated student comments that were summarized and often quoted for illustrative purposes. This study provided insights from these international students about their problems and concerns at WMU. It was determined that the major problem concerned their lack of English proficiency. The questionnaire is attached. [ERIC]


Nilsson, J.E. (2000) A comparison of international and United States students in APA-accredited programs: Acculturation, counseling self-efficacy and role difficulties in supervision.  Dissertation Abstracts International, 60 (11-A), 3919.

 There has been a call in the multicultural supervision literature to enhance the understanding of minority students' unique training needs and develop appropriate theories and models of training for these students (Leong & Wagner, 1994; McNeill, Hom, & Perez, 1995). Although a few researchers have empirically examined differences between U.S. majority and minority students in multicultural supervision (Cook & Helms, 1988; Vander Kolk, 1974), virtually no empirical studies have been published on international students' training experiences. The main purpose of the present study was to advance knowledge regarding the training needs of international students in APA-accredited programs in psychology. It was expected that due to issues associated with acculturation, international students' counseling self-efficacy and role difficulties in supervision would differ from U.S. students. The impact of multicultural supervision on these variables was also investigated. A secondary purpose of the study was to examine whether the present findings supported theory and previously obtained results on self-efficacy and acculturation. Multivariate analyses of variance, counseling hierarchical regression, and trend analyses were some of the statistical methods employed to answer these questions. One hundred and fifty-one training directors at APA-accredited programs and internship sites distributed surveys to doctoral students in their programs or sites. Three hundred and twenty-one students completed surveys, resulting in a response rate of 57%. Of the students, 83% identified as U.S. citizens, 14% as international students, and 3% as permanent residents. The results demonstrated that international students differed from U.S. students in that they reported less counseling self-efficacy than U.S. majority students and less Role Ambiguity than U.S. minority students. Acculturation had an impact on international students' training experiences; students who were more acculturated reported more counseling self-efficacy and less role difficulties. Furthermore, a good supervisory working alliance was positively associated with international students' counseling self-efficacy and negatively associated with their role difficulties, whereas multicultural supervision, that included a discussion of issues unique to international students, did not have an impact on these variables. Finally, the present results also provided some support for previous findings on counseling self-efficacy and acculturation, nation, but not for the theory of biculturalism. [PsycINFO]


Noels, K.A., Pon, G., & Clement, R. (1996) Language, identity, and adjustment: The role of linguistic self-confidence in the acculturation process. Journal of Language & Social Psychology, 15 (3), 246-264. 

 Research in both cross-cultural psychology and the social psychology of language has examined the changes in identity and language behavior that occur when two ethnolinguistic groups come into contact. This study attempted to integrate these two fields of inquiry through an investigation of the relations between identity, interethnic contact, linguistic self-confidence, and psychological adjustment in 179 Chinese undergraduates (aged 17-38 yrs). Various rating scales were used to assess the aforementioned variables. The findings indicated that exclusive identification with either the first or second language group was the most commonly endorsed identity. Correlational and path analyses of the relations between interethnic contact, self-confidence in using the English and Chinese languages, Chinese and Canadian identities, and adjustment variables supported the proposed model in which communication variables mediate the influence of inter- ethnic contact on identity and adjustment. The results are interpreted within the context of current formulations of acculturation and intercultural communication. [PsycINFO]


Nzewi, E.N. (1978) Rorschach personality trait differences in two groups of Nigerian students. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 39 (5-B), 2514.



Obong, E.E. (1985) A comparative study of the non-academic needs of the international and non-international university students relative to student services provided them. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (12-B, Pt 1), 3997.



Oghojafor, A.L. (1980) Psychiatric and traditional healing modalities for "Brain Fag Syndrome": Preferences for use by Westernized Nigerian students in selected American universities. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 40 (8-A), 4425.



Ogunyileka, G.B. (1983) Self perceived problems of Nigerian students at Southeastern University. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 44 (3-A), 676.


Okafor, D.C. (1987) Adjustment of African students at Michigan State University. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (7-A), 2378.


Okoawo, A.A. (1985) Differential attitudes of Nigerian students toward seeking professional psychological counseling. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (9-B), 3115.


Olaniran, B.A. (1993) International students' network patterns and cultural stress: What really counts. Communication Research Reports, 10 (1), 69-83. 

Explored the role of "quantity" in terms of the numbers of host people in international college students' communication networks and the effects on cultural stress (CLS). This effect was examined from close interpersonal communication ties and casual communicative contacts perspectives. 102 international students in the US were asked to complete a questionnaire from which their CLS scores were determined. The scores were used to determine the effect of casual vs close contacts. Findings indicate that the quantity of host people in a network was an important determinant of CLS. However, the extent to which these interaction types were able to determine CLS was dependent on the stress type. [PsycINFO]


Oleka, S.O. (1987) Ethnocentrism among Nigerian students in American colleges and universities. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (7-A), 2515-2516.


Oliver, N., & Fingas, W. (1986) The teaching of psychotherapy to foreign medical graduate residents in psychiatry. Psychiatric Journal of the University of Ottawa, 11 (4), 223-227. 

Reviews literature concerning the general psychiatric training of foreign medical graduates (FMGs). These data describe problem areas, and to some extent, interventions. Findings from the literature reveal, however, less direction for the specific teaching of psychotherapeutic skills to these trainees. The psychotherapy supervision given to 16 1st-yr FMG residents in psychiatry is described. Their mean psychotherapy marks in the 5 yrs after this teaching are contrasted with the means for all residents in the program. [PsycINFO]


Onifade, S.A. (1985) An investigation of the relationship among attitude, behavior and belief of Nigerian students toward physical activity. Journal of Teacher Education, 1 (1), 191-201. 

Examined the interrelationship of attitude, physical activity (PA) behavior and PA belief of 217 male and 133 female Nigerian students attending American universities. Attitudes were assessed through the use of an attitudes toward PA inventory developed by G. S. Kenyon (1968), while PA behavior was assessed by the use of a scale developed by L. B. Zaichkowsky (unpublished dissertation). Data were collected on the PA belief of Ss by a scale developed by the author. Uni- and multivariate statistical procedures were used to analyze the data. Results failed to reveal a relationship among attitude, PA behavior, and PA belief. However, there were some relationships between some specific aspects of attitude and PA behavior and belief. Ss also chose individual PAs over dual and team activities. Findings suggest that provision for reasonable opportunities for participation in PA is influential in promoting and maintaining positive attitudes toward PA. [PsycINFO]


Onwumechili, C.A. (1991) The roles of television in adapting African students to American culture in the United States. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 51 (10-A), 3267.


Onyemenem, C.A. (1989) The impact of communication problems on West African students at Texas Southern University. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 50 (2-A), 321.


Opara-Nadi, B.E. (1980) The relationship of authoritarianism and dogmatism to cognitive style among American and Third World foreign students. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 40 (10-A), 5378.


Oredein, O.O. (1989) Differences among international students on a measure of attitude toward seeking professional counseling help. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 49 (12-A, Pt 1), 3629-3630.


Oropeza, B.C., Fitzgibbon, M., & Baron, A. (1991) Managing mental health crises of foreign college students. Journal of Counseling & Development, 69 (3), 280-284. 

Discusses stressors central to the precipitation of mental health crises among foreign college students. These stressors include culture shock; changes in social and economic status; expectations about academic performance; isolation, alienation, and discrimination; and family-related pressures. The legal, ethical, and procedural questions involved in managing crises culminating in a psychiatric committal are highlighted. [PsycINFO]


Orr, E.G. (2003) Experiences of persistence among international Polynesian students in an American university.  Dissertation Abstracts International, 64 (5-A), 1528.

The persistence of international students in an American university was investigated. The transition experiences of 14 international Polynesian students who graduated in June 2003 were the focus of in-depth qualitative interviews. Prominent themes included the importance of; relationships, family influence and burdens, choosing a congruent major, spirituality, managing the shift in educational system, inoculating experiences, managing the shift from Polynesian to American time. The importance of bicultural self-efficacy in making bicultural adaptations is revealed as a major overarching theme in the adjustment process of students who move from probation to graduation. Several bicultural adaptations are identified through student experiences. [PsycINFO]


Oshodin, O.G. (1982, Summer) Alcohol abuse among Nigerian college students in New York area of the United States. College Student Journal, 16 (2), 153-157. 

80% of the 200 males and 75% of the 100 females reported drinking; of these, 70% stated that they had started drinking in Nigeria, and 65% that their drinking had increased during college. Results suggest that drinking was in part a response to cultural shock and to social and personal problems. It is recommended that preventive programs be established in Nigerian schools and that greater emphasis be placed both on establishing a strong relationship between Nigerian students in the US and their new cultural environment and on maintaining ties to their native culture. [PsycINFO]


Othman, A.H. (1980) The identification of adjustment problems, life change stress and perceived usefulness of problem-solving resources in a Malay student sample in the United States. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 40 (7-A), 3788.



Otieno, T.N. (2001) Higher Education: A Qualitative Inquiry into the Educational Experiences of Seven African Women. Higher Education. 


This study was a qualitative inquiry that focused on the educational experiences of seven African women students’ attempt to pursue higher education in their home countries. It identified the problems they encountered, and how they overcame them, and explored their educational experiences in the United States. Data came from systematic interviews and field observations and informal surveys. Informants were asked to read notes from their interviews and add to or clarify them. Six of the seven informants had done their undergraduate studies in their own countries. They had come to the United States to pursue master's degrees, and six had been "wooed" to pursue doctoral degrees. They had work experience in various fields, and had successful careers. The data analysis identified four categories of interest; motivational factors, barriers, strategies, and studies in the United States. All of the informants agreed that education in most African countries does not favor the upward mobility of women, and they talked about African cultural elements that the schools perpetuate that tend to discourage girls and women. They made several suggestions to encourage women to stay in the educational systems of their own countries. Most of these recommendations will require substantive societal changes. [ERIC]


Owen, C.C. (2003) Stereotyping, outcomes, acculturation, and the attribution of discrimination among Chinese international students in the United States. Dissertation Abstracts International, 63 (10-B), 4917.

 This study contributes to the new research on the attribution of discrimination by considering when Chinese international students and scholars may make attributions of discrimination and how acculturation affects those attributions. The 128 participants read four original vignettes representing conditions of positive and negative stereotyping followed by positive or negative hiring outcomes. Then they responded to an eight-item attribution measure which included three attribution of discrimination items developed for this study: (1) "The professor's bias about Chinese students," (2) "The professor or department is discriminating against the student," and (3) "The professor's attitude or feelings about Chinese students." The study hypothesized that students with a moderate (i.e., bicultural) degree of acculturation would attribute the greatest degree of discrimination to a negative job outcome following an incidence of negative stereotyping. Overall, each hypothesis was supported, but not for each attribution of discrimination item on each hypothesis, and for low rather than moderate acculturation. Looking at results for the attribution of discrimination items separately, first, the bias item showed a significant interaction of stereotype and outcome, though not always in the expected direction: When there was a discrepancy between valence of stereotype and outcome (for example, a positive stereotype paired with a negative outcome), participants did not think bias was a likely explanation. Acculturation had no bearing on attributions of bias. Next, for the discrimination item, there was a significant three-way interaction of stereotype, outcome, and acculturation, as well as a significant main effect of acculturation. Specifically, this was because participants with low acculturation attributed significantly more discrimination in the negative stereotype/positive outcome condition than did those with either moderate or high acculturation. Finally, whether an outcome was positive or negative had no impact on the attribution of attitude/feelings about Chinese students as a reason for the outcome. What did matter, as with the bias item, was congruence between valence of stereotype and outcome. When there was congruence, attitude/feelings was rated a "somewhat likely" reason for the vignettes' outcomes. There was no effect of acculturation for this item. The study's results indicate that, despite endorsement of the attribution items under certain conditions, Chinese international students/scholars tend to minimize discrimination, as do other minority groups in the U.S. This strategy may protect self esteem and self-efficacy in the short-term. However, low acculturation predicted more sensitivity to discrimination's subtler dynamics and a greater likelihood that participants would attribute discrimination, and by that name. These findings indicate that further research on acculturation's impact on these attributions would be fruitful. [PsycINFO]


Owie, I. (1982, Summer) Social alienation among foreign students. College Student Journal, 16 (2), 163-165. 

 Administered the Dean Alienation Scale to 29 male and 24 female university students studying in the US. Results reveal a higher level of social alienation than found with nonforeign students, but no sex differences in alienation scores. Since high levels of alienation may interfere with the students' academic and occupational goals and foreign students are acutely aware of the need to justify the investment in their education, any attempt by host institutions to enhance the attainment of their goals would promote a greater sense of belonging and a corresponding decrease in social alienation. [PsycINFO]


Oyelere, B.A. (1982) The difference in managerial attitudes between Nigerian students in Nigeria and in the United States. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (1-A), 248.


Ozbay, Y. (1994) An investigation of the relationship between adaptational coping process and self-perceived negative feelings on international students. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 54 (8-A), 2958.


Park, W. (1992) Asian foreign students' evaluations of individualistic and collectivistic counseling styles. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 53 (3-A),  723.


Parr, G., Bradley, L., & Bingi, R. (1991) Directors' perceptions of the concerns and feelings of international students. College Student Journal, 25 (3), 370-376. 

Asked 55 college directors of student affairs offices to complete a survey of the concerns and feelings of international students. Ss rated the following areas as being of greatest concern to students: school, extended family, cultural differences, and aspects of the lifestyle in the US. Areas rated as being of least concern to students were those related to amenities, practical necessities, and ordinary living expenses. The feeling profile from Ss' ratings depicted students as determined, confident, thankful, and cheerful; however, they were also perceived to be somewhat lonely and cautious. [PsycINFO]


Parr, G., Bradley, L., & Bingi, R. (1992) Concerns and feelings of international students. Journal of College Student Development, 33 (1), 20-25. 

Surveyed 163 international students attending American colleges or universities. Findings suggest that international students are rather robust (i.e., their concerns were moderate in intensity and their self portrait depicted feelings that were more positive than negative). Concern about substance abuse was very slight. Ss were most concerned about their extended family, cultural differences, finances, and school. Concerns regarding cultural differences focused on aspects of the American culture such as competitiveness, individualism, and assertiveness. Concerns about finances targeted more on work opportunities than on living expenses. Ss were concerned about finding adequate time with an adviser and about understanding class lectures. Feelings items tended to depict Ss as determined, thankful, happy, confident, cheerful, and cautious. [PsycINFO]


Parson, I.H. (1992) A study of the needs and adjustment problems of international graduate students at Lehigh University. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 52 (9-A), 3205.


Patton, B.A. (2002) International Students and the American University Library. Information & Technology MA Thesis.  


Among the adjustments that international students encounter when studying at colleges in the United States is the transition to independent research in an American university library. Studies indicate that Non-Native Speakers of English is the population most likely to suffer from library anxiety and therefore most at risk for lowered academic achievement. In addition to overcoming differences from their national education systems and library cultures, international students also face language barriers that escalate difficulties in help-seeking behaviors and formulation of search strategies. Recent literature showcases the development of critical thinking as one of the most important facets of information literacy instruction programs. The way this emphasis interfaces with the particular needs of international students is analyzed to produce conclusions concerning effective strategies for working with international students. The contribution of adult learning theory, the impact of active learning experiences, and the correlation between learning style and teaching method and are all addressed. Faculty and international student focus-group responses mirrored the discussions found in the literature and the recommendations offered. [ERIC]



Paul, S.P. (1984) International students, the adjustment of selected groups. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 44 (12-A), 3641.


Pedersen, P.B. (1991) Counseling international students. Counseling Psychologist, 19 (1), 10-58. 

Critical incidents collected while counseling international students at the University of Minnesota demonstrate the typical problems encountered and suggest approaches to manage those problems. Person- and situation-centered theories of counseling these students are reviewed. Critical incidents discussed include making friends, dormitory life, language problems, sex roles, and isolation. The critical incidents and responses suggest that informal methods and informal counseling contexts become especially important in counseling international students. Practical suggestions and tools for counseling international students are discussed. [PsycINFO]


Perkins, C.S., Perkins, M.L., Gulielmino, L.M., & Reiff, R.F. (1977) A comparison of the adjustment problems of three international student groups. Journal of College Student Personnel, 18 (5), 382-388. 

Identified some signficant differences in the adjustment problems of 210 students representing different national groups (Chinese and Indian) at an American university. The study also investigated significant differences between the groups on particular demographic and social interaction variables. Results suggest a need for more sophisticated statistical analyses in research concerning foreign students. [PsycINFO]


Perry, W.S. (1989) The relationship of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and other critical variables to the academic performance of international graduate students. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 50 (2-A), 422.


Petress, K.C. (1995) Coping with a new educational environment: Chinese students' imagined interactions before commencing studies in the U.S. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 22 (1), 59-63. 

Interviewed 38 male and 18 female Chinese university students, who anticipated studying in the US, about their anticipations regarding study and life in the US and how anxieties were resolved before arriving in the US. Most Ss experienced imagined interactions (IMIs) in 3 settings: rehearsing meetings/interviews with others with whom they are seeking help in securing admission to a university, reviewing past IMIs to improve future real interactions, and rehearsing meetings with future foreign advisors. Anxieties included fears about personal safety, failing to achieve good grades, finances, boyfriend/girlfriend separations, adapting to a new culture, and making new friends. The topics included in Ss' IMIs were strongly related to gender. 52% of males and 84% of females said their IMIs gave them clues that would improve later real interactions. [PsycINFO]


Phillips, H.J. (1979) Foreign student attitudes toward the United States: A reexamination of the association hypothesis. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 40 (5-B), 2438-2439.


Phongsuwan, A. (1997) Relationships between college satisfaction and language ability, and academic performance of international students. Dissertation Abstracts International, 58 (4-A), 1220.

This study focused on assessment of international students' college satisfaction and the relationships between college satisfaction and language ability, and academic performance. Two hundred questionnaires were sent to Asian students. One hundred and five students returned the questionnaires for a rate of 52 percent. It was found that: (1) There was a significant relationship between communicative language ability (CLA) and satisfaction with the college's contribution to academic and/or personal growth, quality of instruction, services, campus climate, and GPA at the level of.05. (2) There was a significant relationship between GPA and satisfaction with campus climate at the level of.05. (3) There was no significant relationship between GPA and satisfaction with the college's contribution to academic and/or personal growth, quality of instruction, and services. (4) There was no significant relationship between CLA and English studied in school system in home country, intensive English studied before coming to WSU, and intensive English studied at WSU. In conclusion, CLA contributed to both college satisfaction and GPA. GPA was positively related to satisfaction with campus climate social life, but not academic aspects of the college. [PsycINFO]


Pollard, W.B. (1989) Gender stereotypes and gender roles in cross-cultural education: The cultural assimilator. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 13 (1), 57-72. 

Compared 23 Latin American and 30 West German high school exchange students in the US over 1 yr to determine (1) the influence of similarity of gender stereotypes between US host parents and Ss on student functioning (SF) and (2) which gender-related issues were problematic for Ss. Criterion variables included ratings of behavioral functioning in the exchange by representatives of the exchange program and rate of referral to counseling services. Results show that gender-stereotype agreement between host parents and Ss was not a significant influence on SF. An orientation program using a modified cultural assimilator format helped improve the functioning of Latin American Ss. Issues identified as problematic by Ss were unique to the Ss' culture and focused on behavioral aspects of gender-role concerns. (French & Spanish abstracts) [PsycINFO]


Pollard, W.R. (1986) Gender roles and gender stereotypes in cross-cultural education. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (9-A), 2607-2608.



Pornputtkul, S. (1974) Academic problems and personal factors in the education of Thai students in America as related to career choice. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 35 (4-A), 2057-2058.



Pouryoussefi, H. (1984) College impact on religiosity of Muslim students studying in the United States. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (3-A), 960.


Poyrazli, S. (2001) The role of assertiveness, academic experiences, and academic self-efficacy on psychosocial adjustment of graduate international students. Dissertation Abstracts International, 61 (7-A), 2608.

This study examined the extent to which gender, English proficiency, assertiveness, academic experiences, and academic self-efficacy predict psychosocial adjustment among graduate international students. A total of 122 graduate international students (51% master's, 48% doctorate; 55% male, 45% female) participated in the study. Findings indicated that three variables contributed uniquely to the variance in students' general adjustment level: English proficiency, assertiveness, and academic self-efficacy. However, students' loneliness was predicted only by gender and assertiveness. Males reported higher levels of loneliness than females, but there was no gender difference in students' level of general adjustment. Assertiveness and academic self-efficacy were uniquely associated with adjustment. Students with higher levels of assertiveness and academic self-efficacy reported fewer adjustment problems. Results from the bivariate correlations indicated that the students with higher level of assertiveness reported being more self-efficacious academically, suggesting that the students who are more assertive probably initiate more academic interactions or ask for academic help (i.e., utilizing writing centers, inquiring about an assignment with a professor or classmate) and, therefore, have a higher academic self-efficacy. Results also indicated that high scores on assertiveness is associated with less loneliness. The implications of the findings are discussed. [PsycINFO]


Poyrazli, S. (2003) Ethnic identity and psychosocial adjustment among international students. Source Psychological Reports, 92 (2), 512-514.

Studied the relation between ethnic identity and psychosocial adjustment in international students. A total of 118 international students (aged 18-46 yrs) studying in 4 different universities in the US participated. Analyses indicated that search for ethnic identity and English proficiency predicted psychosocial adjustment. Students with higher English proficiency and students who understood the role of ethnic identity for themselves and showed commitment to learning more about their background also tended to report better adjustment. [PsycINFO]


Poyrazli, S., Arbona, C., Bullington, R., Pisecco, S. (2001) Adjustment issues of Turkish college students studying in the United States. College Student Journal, 35 (1), 52-62.

Examined the adjustment issues of Turkish college students in the US. The Instrument of Student Adjustment Strain (ISAS) was used in the study. The participants were 79 19-34 yr old college Turkish students. Results indicate that those who had better English language skills reported having higher GPA's; older students reported having higher GPA's; and younger students reported performing better in the Test of English as a Foreign Language exam. In addition, as the students progressed in their studies, they reported having higher GPA's. Other findings show that younger students and students who had better Reading and Writing proficiency in English, reported adjusting better. The students that received a Turkish governmental scholarship, however, reported having more adjustment problems. A simultaneous regression analysis reveals that only Reading-Writing Proficiency in English language and Age significantly contributes to the adjustment level. The results also indicated that the internal consistency of the ISAS is high. [PsycINFO]


Poyrazli, S., Arbona, C., Nora, A., McPherson, R., & Pisecco, S. (2002) Relation between assertiveness, academic self-efficacy, and psychosocial adjustment among international graduate students. Journal of College Student Development, 43 (5), 632-642.

The Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (S. A. Rathus, 1973), Academic Self-Efficacy Scale (G. M. Jenson, 1991; M. Sherer & J. E. Maddux, 1982), The Inventory for Student Adjustment Strain (S. L. Crano & W. D. Crano, 1993), and UCLA Loneliness Scale (D. W. Russell, 1996) were used to examine a total of 122 graduate international students (aged 21-47 yrs). Findings indicate that English proficiency, assertiveness, and academic self-efficacy contributed uniquely to the variance in students' general adjustment level, while students' loneliness was predicted only by gender and assertiveness. [PsycINFO]


Pratt, C.B. (1993) A cross-cultural study of news media preferences: African versus White U.S. students. Journal of Black Studies, 23 (3), 314-331. 

Compared the mass media (MM) exposure patterns of 129 sub-Saharan African (Ethiopian and Nigerian) and 288 White American university students through a questionnaire survey. It was assumed that interpersonal news channels would be used relatively more by African Ss in comparison with the MM. Among US Ss, the prediction that the amount of exposure to international news media would be positively related to Ss' reported interest in international news, extent of foreign travel, and social contacts with foreign nations in the US was confirmed. Among African Ss, the favorability of international relations was not a factor in exposure to US news. The perception of tension in political relations was significantly related to high exposure to radio news for African Ss. [PsycINFO]


Privette, G., Hwang, K., & Bundrick, C.M. (1997) Cross-cultural measurement of experience: Taiwanese and Americans' peak performance, peak experience, misery, failure, sport, and average events. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 84 (3, Pt 2) 1459-1482.

To compare Taiwanese and Americans on selected experiential personality dimensions, the Experience Questionnaire was translated and tested with 27 Taiwanese in an American university. Descriptions by 129 Taiwanese of peak performance, peak experience, misery, failure, sport, and average events were compared with those made by 123 Americans. Analysis of variance with repeated measures of factors indicated that both samples uniformly characterized processes of peak performance as full focus with clarity of self in process. The Taiwanese considered failure more significant than the Americans who denied clarity of self in misery and failure and more generally endorsed peak experience than the Taiwanese. The study extends the credibility of experience: experiential events can simultaneously have cross-cultural generality and inner processes that are culturally sensitive. [PsycINFO]


Punjavat, T. Credit cards: Understanding international graduate student consumers. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 54 (2-A), 441.


Puritt, F.J. (1978, Spring) The adaptation of African students to American society. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 2 (1), 90-118. 

Summarizes results of a questionnaire study involving 296 sub-Saharan African college students from 9 American campuses. Results suggest the following about African students in the US: They are predominantly Christian and middle-class, coming mostly from cities of over 10,000; Nigerians vastly outnumber those from any other country; two-thirds are undergraduates and one-third graduate students, with at least a third having started their American education in a community college; and, they are mostly supported by their families or themselves. Their major problems at first are in the areas of climate, communication with Americans, discrimination, homesickness, depression, irritability, and tiredness. Only a minority feel comfortable with the American culture, though the vast majority are pleased with the education they are receiving. It was possible to identify several correlates of adjustment, defined as happiness and freedom from various problems. Students have a more positive attitude toward American values if they are from more prominent families, have attended an orientation to American education, and spend time with Americans rather than other Africans. Contact with the foreign-student office on campus seems to be an effective bridge to American culture. (Spanish & French abstracts) [PsycINFO]


Rahimi, A. (1990) Attitudes of selected Iranian students toward seeking professional psychological help. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 50 (7-A), 1993.


Rai, G.S. (2001) Meeting the educational needs of international students: A perspective from US schools. International Social Work, 45 (1), 21-33.

Generally, international students come to the United States on their own initiatives. Only a few schools make any recruitment efforts. Although these students get training in the US model of social work education, some arrangements should be made to accommodate their educational needs. They may face some problems related to language, finance, or social adjustment, but almost all of them successfully complete their degree. [PsycINFO]


Rai, R. (1983) A study of the academic and social problems of a selected group of foreign graduate students in the doctoral program in the Department of Physics at the University of Oregon. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (9-A), 2850.



Rajapaksa, S., & Dundes, L. (2002-2003) It's a Long Way Home: International Student Adjustment to Living in the United States. Journal of College Student Retention, 4 (1), 15-28. 


Compared the adjustment of 182 international students to a comparison sample of U.S. students to determine if they have greater difficulty adjusting to college life. Found that international students are more likely to feel lonely, homesick, and as if they had left part of themselves at home. Also confirmed the importance of social networks in their adjustment. [ERIC]



Ramirez Better, M.V. (1980) The adjustment problems of Latin American students attending selected California universities. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 41 (3-A), 946.



Ramos-Ruiz, Z. (1985) The adaptation of Spanish-speaking Latin American graduate students to the United States higher education professor. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (5-A), 1181.


Ray, M.C., & Lee, M.Y. (1989) Effects of stigmas on intergroup relationships. Journal of Social Psychology, 129 (6), 855-857. 

Proposes that a master stigma accentuates the stigmatizing effects of other traits of individuals (epiphenomena). The master stigma and its epiphenomena were identified as perceived by students from 4 developing countries (122 Iranians, 188 Nigerians, 139 Taiwanese, and 78 Venezuelans). All Ss were attending US colleges/universities. Racial background was the master stigma only for Nigerian Ss, whereas being a foreigner was for the other groups. Nigerian Ss may have (1) perceived the saliency of their master stigma (racial background) in US society and (2) accentuated the stigmatizing effects of being foreigners and cultural background to decrease the negative effects of their master stigma. [PsycINFO]


Razavi, M.Z. (1975) Personality correlates relating to the brain drain among foreign students from Far Eastern and South American countries. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 36 (1-A), 136-137.


Razavi, R.A. (1989) A study of the adjustment problems of international students in Northern Virginia Community College, Prince George's Community College and Montgomery College. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 50 (5-A), 1256-1257.


Redmond, M.V. (2000) Cultural distance as a mediating factor between stress and intercultural communication competence. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 24 (1), 151-159.

Investigated the effects of cultural distance on the amount of stress, the handling of stress, and intercultural communication competence as reported by international students attending a US university. Cultural distance was defined by Hofstede's 4 dimensions of cultural variability: power, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity, and individualism. Intercultural communication competence was operationalized as 6 competencies: language competence, adaptation, social decentering, communication effectiveness, social integration and knowledge of the host culture. 631 international students completed a self-report instrument with items developed to assess each of the intercultural communication competencies, the amount of stress, and the handling of stress. Results show the intercultural competencies differed between those respondents from cultures closest to the US in cultural values and those furthest. Adaption was the most prevalent skill related to both the amount of stress and the handling of stress regardless of cultural value. Finding adaption to vary in its level of contribution to predicting stress is reasonable since cultural differences are inextricably linked to cultural value distances. [PsycINFO]


Redmond, M.V., & Bunyi, J.M. (1993, Spring) The relationship of intercultural communication competence with stress and the handling of stress as reported by international students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 17 (2), 235-254. 

Intercultural communication competence was defined as a multidimensional concept consisting of communication effectiveness, adaptation, social integration, language competence, knowledge of the host culture, and social decentering. Four research questions were posited to a sample of 631 international university students (aged 17-52 yrs). Reported adaptation and social decentering were the best predictors of the amount of stress reported; communication effectiveness, adaptation, and social integration were the best predictors of the reported effectiveness in handling stress. Students from countries that have the strongest shared heritage and culture with the US experienced the least stress and felt most communicatively competent. [PsycINFO]


Reece, D., Palmgreen, P. (2000) Coming to America: Need for acculturation and media use motives among Indian sojourners in the US.  International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 24 (6), 807-824.

Investigated the influence of the need for acculturation on motivations for media use by Indian sojourners to the US. 99 Asian Indian graduate students (aged 21-36 yrs) completed an expanded version of the Television Viewing Motives Scale (A. M. Rubin, 1983). Follow-up interviews were conducted with those 30 Ss who reported watching the most US television. Results show 8 motives for Ss' use of US television, including the motives of acculturation and reflection on values. There was a strong relationship between need for acculturation and Ss' television viewing motivation. Television watching moderately correlated with reflection on values and learning. It is concluded that Indian sojourners seek and find valuable cultural information in US news coverage, situation comedies, sports coverage, and movies and that the new culture's media is important in the acculturation process. [PsycINFO]


Rees, T.H. (1984) Hearing-impaired foreign students at Gallaudet College: Profiles and trends. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (2-A), 494.


Reichert, E. (1991) Perceptions of domestic violence against women: A cross-cultural survey of international students. Response to the Victimization of Women & Children, 14 (1)[78], 13-18. 

Examined the perceptions of family violence in the home countries of 120 foreign students studying in the US. The majority of Ss agreed about the general definition of physical abuse, that its effects are detrimental, and that society should do something about it, including establishing greater socio-economic equality between men and women. Ss from countries with industrialized market economies believed the frequency of physical, emotional, and verbal abuse to be greater than Ss from less developed countries and agreed more than the others that abuse has serious effects on the physical and mental health of victims and their children. [PsycINFO]


Reihani, D.K. (1982) Factors motivating Iranian students in the U.S.A. to pursue higher education. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (2-A), 330-331.


Reisbick, S., & Choi, T. (1987) Emotional intensity ratings and personal distance in American and Korean subjects. Psychological Reports, 60 (2), 519-529.  62 American and 71 Korean college students rated on a scale of 1 to 7 the intensity of emotion they would feel for each of 4 different levels of personal distance: self, sibling, friend, and stranger. Significant differences were found for personal distance and kind of emotion but not for culture. [PsycINFO]


Reiser, S. (1982) Political affiliations of Arab students: A survey study of gender and religion as influences upon ideological choice. International Journal of Women's Studies, 5 (5), 385-401. 

Examines data collected in a 3-yr survey study of 596 Arab students at an American university and explores the role that gender and religion take in influencing political orientations. Findings indicate that religion influences ideological associational choice, but to a lesser extent for Arab women than for men. The only substantial variances among women, based on religion, were in the 2 categories of "Arabism" and "family." Results show an almost equal and low response to religious association by all women and a powerful response to it by Muslim males. [PsycINFO]


Rizk, A.A. (1986) A study of communication patterns of international students in the process of acculturation. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (3-A), 696.


Rocha-Erkaya, O.D. (1989) Foreign students' motivation and attitudes for learning English: A qualitative study. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 50 (6-A), 1585.


Roeschley, S.M. (1994) Health services and related health education for foreign students at selected universities and colleges in the United States. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 54 (8-A), 2905.


Roongrattanakool, D. (1999) Concerns in academic skills and related coping strategies of international graduate students at Mississippi State University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 59 (11-A), 4081.

This study was designed to investigate the academic concerns and related coping strategies of international graduate students at Mississippi State University. They were measured by a survey instrument developed by the researcher. The data were collected from a population of 303 international graduate students enrolled at MSU during the Fall semester of the 1998-1999 academic year. One hundred ninety-four students (64%) returned the instrument. Three research questions were posed in the study. The first question, which dealt with identifying differences across the array of 48 academic concerns considered, was addressed using a one-way repeated measures analysis. The second question, which was measured through a set of mixed model repeated measures analyses, addressed differences in academic concerns among students by country of origin, age, gender, marital status, field of study, English language proficiency (TOEFL score), and length of stay in the U.S. The third question explored related coping strategies used by the respondents. A Cochran's Q Test was employed in that analysis. The respondents' most prevalent academic concerns, according to the findings, were writing and speaking skills, which included completing specific writing tasks, e.g. research papers, reports, theses, dissertations; writing quickly and concisely in English; presenting ideas in a logical and organized manner in writing; giving speeches, oral reports, or presentations in English; pronouncing words in English; and expressing thoughts in English, e.g. clarifying opinions. Among the seven background variables considered as part of question 2, country was found to have a significant effect on students' perceptions of overall academic concern. Southeast and East Asian students reported having more academic concerns than European, African, and South Asian students. Students from North, Middle, and South America also reported having more academic concerns than African and South Asian students, whereas European students indicated more academic concerns than African students. Students who differed on those seven variables, however, shared the same perceptions. Speaking and writing skills concerned respondents more than the other skills. Students used different coping strategies. Six strategies were used by more than 50% of the students: (1) be self-motivated and work hard; (2) read materials and be prepared; (3) watch T.V. to practice listening and pronunciation; (4) think and write in English; (5) practice spelling and pronunciation; and (6) consult advisors. Four strategies were employed by less than 15% of the students: (1) practice with programmed learning materials for writing; (2) go to the Learning Center for academic assistance; (3) take additional writing courses; and (4) write in one's native language and translate it into English. [PsycINFO]


Royal, J.C. (1991) External and internal resources in transcultural transition: The impact of family environment, social exploration preference, and achievement motivation on the social adjustment and academic achievement of Black, English-speaking, international students in the American high school. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 52 (3-B), 1736.


Royeen, A.M. (1980) A study in perceptions and attitudes of the Taiwanese and Indian students towards the United States and the American people during their first year of study at the University of Cincinnati. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 41 (1-A), 129.



Sabbagh, E.A. (1993) Neither an immigrant nor a visitor: An interactional study of the adaptation to temporary residence by Arabic-speaking students in the American culture. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 54 (1-A), 228.


Saeki, C. (1986) A psychological adjustment of Japanese students studying at American universities from the perspective of Americans. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (2-A), 477.


Saini, B.K. (1983) A comparative study of the adjustment of Indian, Fijian, Iranian, Mauritian and Thai students in the first year of Panjab University. Dayalbagh Educational Institute Research Journal of Education, 1 (1), 28-30. 

Administered a 55-item level of adjustment scale to 50 1st-yr Indian, Fijian, Iranian, Mauritian, and Thai college students. The scale included items related to academics; admission and accommodation; home; the examination system; health; and social, emotional, and personal problems. Results indicate that Indian students appeared to be the most well-adjusted. [PsycINFO]


Saldana, D.H. Acculturation and stress: Latino students at a predominantly Anglo university. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 49 (9-B), 4021.


Saleh, M.A. (1980) The personal, social, and academic adjustment problems of Arab students at selected Texas institutions of higher education. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 40 (12-A, Pt 1), 6168.


Salem, E.A. (1986) Attitudes of international students from developing countries toward campus professional psychological services. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (5-A), 1609-1610.


Sami, M.B. (1986) A model for orientation program of adjustment of foreign students in American colleges and universities. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (6-A), 2050-2051.


Sammour, Q.M. (1993) A study on the adaptation problems of foreign graduate students at Michigan State University based on Tinto's model. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 53 (7-A), 2253-2254.


Sandhu, D.S. (1994) An examination of the psychological needs of the international students: Implications for counselling and psychotherapy. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 17 (4), 229-239. 

Examines both intrapersonal and interpersonal factors that contribute to the psychological distress of international students. Among the stressors considered are a sense of loss, feelings of inferiority and uncertainty, communication problems, culture shock, and loss of social support systems. Several counseling strategies and techniques to alleviate the acculturative stress of these students are presented, including proactive and continuous approaches, encouraging involvement, human relations training, a buddy system, and communications workshops. These techniques are designed to make the sojourning experience of foreign students more satisfying and thus enhance their academic achievements. [PsycINFO]


Sandhu, D.S., & Asrabadi, B.R. (1994, Special Issue) Development of an acculturative stress scale for international students: Preliminary findings. Psychological Reports, 75 (1, Pt 2), 435-448. 

Developed and assessed the Acculturative Stress Scale for International Students. The initial 125-item scale was pilot tested with 17 undergraduate and 9 graduate students. The revised scale was administered to 86 male and 42 female international students enrolled in colleges and universities in the US. Perceived discrimination, homesickness, fear, guilt, perceived hatred, and stress due to change (cultural shock) were identified as major factors contributing to acculturative stress. The psychometric properties of the scale and implications for use by mental health practitioners are discussed. [PsycINFO]


Saunders, N.L. (1985) Social support as a predictor of distress among wives of foreign graduate students. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (5-B), 1745-1746.


Schmiedeck, R.A. (1978) The foreign medical graduate and the nature of emigration. Psychiatric Opinion, 15 (3), 38-40. 

For the foreign medical graduate (FMG) migration is not a one-time event, resting on a one-time decision. Rather, it is a process--moving from "emigration," the leaving of one's home country, to "immigration," the more or less permanent adjustment in the host country--which over the years is either solidified or reversed. Emigration is viewed as proceeding simultaneously on several levels: the professional, the economic, the personal, and general conditions of life. The boundaries between these levels are fluid, and social and psychological forces are active on each. It is argued that recognition and anchorage within a professional group are essential to the immigrant, not only in the passive sense of fitting into a structure, but also actively as a reflection of his/her acceptance of a different value system. The identity confusion of the FMG is compared to that of the adolescent, with all the vulnerability and potential of this phase. [PsycINFO]


Schmit, S.E. (2001) Locus of control orientation of international students within the Arizona community college system. Dissertation Abstracts International, 61 (10-A), 3922.

The purpose of this study was to identify the locus of control orientation of the international students within the Arizona community college. The research was conducted to establish baseline information relative to the LOC orientation since no previous formal research has been documented with this international student population. Another focus of this study was to determine if the following variables had an impact on the LOC orientation: gender, age, primary country of origin, English language proficiency, educational classification, and grade point average (GPA). Instrumentation for the study included the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal/External Locus of Control Scale developed by Nowicki & Duke and a general self-reported demographic questionnaire that identified the above variables. The study sample was composed of 1001 international students with F-1 visas who were enrolled during the Spring semester of 2000. Results from the 152 respondents (17.9% return rate) showed that 25.7% of the sample exhibited a more internal locus of control compared to 55.2% in the average response range, with the remaining 19.1% responding in the external range. Age, educational classification, and gender did not add to the predictive value of the LOC orientation; however, GPA (p < .014) and English language proficiency (p < .025) as measured by a TOEFL score of 500+ or ESL placement, were significant predictors and accounted for 15% of the variance in LOC orientation. Further breakdown of English language proficiency grouping indicated that the LOC orientation of students with TOEFL scores of 500+ were significantly more internal than those students enrolled in ESL courses (p < .001). Significant differences (p < .001) in LOC scores among students from different geographic regions determined that European students exhibited a more internal LOC orientation and Asian and African students were more external. Since internal LOC orientation has been correlated with college adjustment and academic success, implications and recommendations were suggested to promote a more internal LOC orientation. [PsycINFO]


Schmitt, M.T., Spears, R., & Branscombe, N.R. (2003) Constructing a minority group identity out of shared rejection: The case of international students. European Journal of Social Psychology, 33 (1), 1-12.

With a sample of international students, the authors investigated how perceptions of rejection by the host community are related to a sense of identification with other international students. Based on the rejection-identification model the authors predicted that perceiving prejudice from the host university would be negatively related to psychological well-being. It was expected that group identification with international students would mediate a positive effect of perceived discrimination on self-esteem, thus suppressing the negative effect of perceiving prejudice on self-esteem. Consistent with predictions, results supported a model in which identification with international students increased in response to perceiving prejudice and suppressed the costs of perceiving oneself as excluded from the host community. Interestingly, identification with participants' home country was not predicted by perceptions of discrimination. Results are discussed in terms of how minority group members construct group identities in response to the intergroup context. [PsycINFO]


Schram, J.L., & Lauver, P.J. (1988) Alienation in international students. Journal of College Student Development, 29 (2), 146-150. 

Investigated predictors of alienation among 266 international students enrolled at a US university. Ss completed a questionnaire on demographics, social contact, and alienation. Standard stepwise multiple procedures identified social contact, graduate status, and Europe as home region as being negatively correlated with alienation and as accounting for 10% of the variance in alienation scores. [PsycINFO]


Schwartz, K.K. (1988) The relationship between culture and stress: A comparison of Chinese, Saudi Arabian and American students' perceptions regarding problems in living, coping behavior and the effectiveness of coping. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 49 (4-A), 771.


Sebastian, F.S. (1990) Loneliness and coping skills of international students. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 50 (11-A), 3486.


Seidman, S.A. Effects of affectively different music and facial expressions on judgments about foreign students in photographs. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (8-A), 2535.


Shabeeb, S.S. (1997) Saudi and Arabian Gulf students' adjustment problems in eastern Washington. Dissertation Abstracts International, 57 (10-A), 4237. 

The purpose of this study was to identify and investigate adjustment problems and concerns that Saudi and Arabian Gulf students encounter while attending colleges in eastern Washington. The Michigan International Students Problem Inventory (MISPI; Porter, 1966) was employed to achieve this goal. Questionnaires were mailed in the fall of 1995 to 150 Saudi and Arabian Gulf students attending six colleges and universities in eastern Washington; 103 useable questionnaires were returned. Three research questions were analyzed to identify adjustment problems and concerns of these students; to determine whether students' adjustment problems varied by length of stay in the United States; and to determine whether students' adjustment problems and concerns varied by such characteristics as gender, marital status, age, scholarship status, level of study, and major field. Statistical techniques included frequency distributions and t-tests for independent samples to test the difference between means, and to provide inferential analysis of the data relating to each research question. Findings of this study included: (1) Saudi and Arabian Gulf students viewed the English language as the most difficult adjustment area, followed by social-personal, living-dining, academic records, orientation services, admission, placement services, student activities, religious services, health services, and financial aid, in respective order. (2) Students with longer length of stay in the United States encountered more problems in some areas than those with shorter stays. (3) Female students encountered more problems in the area of academic records than did male students. (4) Male students encountered more problems in the areas of English language and placement services than did female students. (5) Younger students expressed more concerns than did older students in three areas. (6) Students two had scholarships encountered more problems than those who did not have scholarships in three areas. (7) Undergraduate students encountered more problems than did graduate students in one area. (8) Students who majored in arts and humanities encountered more problems than those who majored in science-related fields in one area. Finally, recommendations to institutions hosting international students were proposed, along with suggestions for possible further research. [PsycINFO]


Shafieyan, M. (1983) Psychosocial, educational, and ecomonic problems of Iranian students in the United States and the effect of the Iran-America crisis on selected problems. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 44 (4-A), 992.


Shahmirzadi, A. (1989) The self-perceived problems of Middle Eastern students attending the George Washington University. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 50 (5-A), 1222.


Shandiz, M.T. (1981) Factors influencing foreign students' adjustments and attitudes in the community of Oklahoma State University. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (5-A), 2312.


Shapurian, R., & Hojat, M. (1987) Descriptive statistics, reliability and validity of a short form of Rotter's locus of control scale given to Iranian college students. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 65 (1), 229-230. 

Administered a short form of Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale to 305 students in Iranian universities and 232 Iranian college students in the US. Scores were correlated in expected directions with measures of depression, neuroticism, anxiety, self-esteem, and loneliness. [PsycINFO]


Shariatmadar-Farooji, F. (1984) An investigation of reported self-concept of Iranian graduate students at four universities in Colorado in relation to their academic achievements and their perceptions of the American society. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 44 (9-A), 2719.


Sheehan, O.O., & Pearson, F. (1995) Asian international and American students' psychosocial development. Journal of College Student Development, 36 (6), 522-530. 

Examined psychosocial development of Asian international and American college freshmen. 32 American and 37 Asian students, (aged 17-24 yrs) completed the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Inventory (SDTLI; R. B. Winston and T. Miller, 1987). Asian international students were significantly lower on Establishing and Clarifying Purpose, Developing Mature Interpersonal Relationships, and Intimacy. No differences were found on Academic Autonomy. Data did not support previous research on gender differences among either Asian or American students. Because the SDTLI is a measure of development based on Western values, some aspects of Asian student development may not have been addressed. [PsycINFO]


Shibata, S. (1983) Identification of ethnic awareness: Comparative study of Anglo Americans' stereotypes of their own ethnic groups and Japanese stereotypes of the American ethnic groups. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (7-A), 2225.


Shih, S., Brown, C. (2000, Fall) Taiwanese international students: Acculturation level and vocational identity. Journal of Career Development, 27 (1), 35-47.

Explored the relationship between acculturation level and vocational identity among 112 graduate and undergraduate Taiwanese international students (19-39 yrs old) attending two Midwestern universities. Surveys packets were completed by all participants including the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale (R. M. Suinn et al, 1987), My Vocational Situation (J. L. Holland et al, 1980), and information regarding age, gender, educational level, length of US residency, and the Test of English as a Foreign Language scores. Participants length of US residency was indicated as follows: under 2 years, 2-4 years, 4-6 years, and more than 6 years. The results revealed that Taiwanese international students who were older and who had a shorter length of US residency were more likely to identify themselves as Asian. The results also indicated that Taiwanese international students who were older and who had a lower acculturation level had higher vocational identity. [PsycINFO]


Shore, W.B. (1986) Differences in adjustment of Vietnamese, Indian and Latin American international students at a mid-Atlantic community college. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (6-A), 2029.

Siegel, C. (1991) Counseling international students: A clinician's comments. Counseling Psychologist, 19 (1), 72-75. 

Comments on P. B. Pedersen's (see record 1991-16948-001) article on counseling of international students from the perspective of a clinician. Topics discussed include Pedersen's review of research on effective counseling techniques. The key issue for these students is how to adapt to fulfill the educational and personal goals for which they came to the US, while holding on to a sense of cultural integrity. [PsycINFO]


Singaravelu, H.D. (1999) Culture specific comparative study of influencing factors related to career choice and persistence: International and domestic students. Dissertation Abstracts International, 60 (3-A), 0652.

The present study sought to shed a light on the career development behavior of the international student population. A comparative study was conducted to examine the differences in Asian International, Non-Asian International and Domestic students' certainty of career/major choice and environmental factors that have influenced this choice. Environmental factors such as family, school counselors, teacher, friends, government were considered as influencing factor. Participants' intent to persist as it relates to career certainty was also examined. The results indicated that there were no significant difference in the level of career certainty between the three groups. It was revealed that the influence of family, school counselors, and friends were significantly different among these three groups. Furthermore, only the Asian International students exhibited a positive correlation between level of career certainty and intent to persist. [PsycINFO]


Singleton, N.I. (1984) A study of host family cohesion and adaptability in full tenure placement and interrupted tenure placement of foreign exchange students. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (2-A), 418.



Si-Tayeb, S. (1982) Nature and distribution of problems encountered by foreign students at the University of Alabama. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 43 (5-A), 1430.


Situ, Y., Austin, T., & Liu, W. (1995) Coping with anomic stress: Chinese students in the USA. Deviant Behavior, 16 (2), 127-149. 

Builds upon R. K. Merton's (1938) perspectives of a goals-means disjunction and modes of stress adaptation to better understand the difficulties experienced by male and female, undergraduate and graduate Chinese students residing in the US during 1990-1991. Chinese-American newspapers were also reviewed for anecdotes and scenarios on Chinese social problems in the US. Indepth and multiple interviews with 25 Chinese students revealed ways they managed anxiety and frustration. Three areas of disassociation between Ss' aspirations and their available means of realizing aspirations were noted. Findings indicate that although the majority of Chinese students were conformists (including ritualists, retreatists, and rebellionists), some of them had circumvented troublesome immigration regulation. Merton's paradigm showed utility not only as a theory of deviance, but also as a general approach to understanding adaptation to an anomic situation. [PsycINFO]


Smith, B.J. (1980) Home economics program development related to problems of foreign student wives and families in cultural adaptation. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 41 (1-B), 148.



Smith, D.K. (1985) A confluent approach to the cross-cultural learning experience. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (1-A), 84.



Smith, N.L. (2002, Winter) International Students' Reflections on the Cultural Embeddedness of Evaluation Theory. American Journal of Evaluation, 23 (4), 481-92. 


Gathered reflections of international and U.S. students on cultural, communication, and instructional difficulties of the task of bringing evaluation theory from the U.S. culture to other cultures, adjusting for differences and translating the theory for different contexts. [ERIC]


Smith, P.Z. (1991) Differences in stress experienced by international and American graduate students. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 52 (2-A), 430.


Sodowsky, G. (1989) Effects of culturally consistent clinical tasks on American and international student observers' perception of counselor credibility. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 50 (6-A), 1567-1568.


Sokari, H. (1981) Predictors of college success among foreign students from various ethnocultural backgrounds. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 41 (8-A), 3543-3544.



Song, L. (1993) Lifestyle changes as related to the risk of coronary heart disease in Chinese students at Oregon State University. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 54 (5-B), 2461.


Spencer-Rodgers, J. (2000) The vocational situation and country of orientation of international students. Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development, 28 (1), 32-49.

Assessed the career-development needs of nonimmigrant international students who had made an initial adjustment to the American educational system. 227 international college students completed surveys that assessed demographic characteristics, work-experience, job-search skills, career-planning needs, and residency plans. Factor analysis indicated that the Ss' vocational needs centered on obtaining work experience, overcoming interview barriers, and developing job-search skills. Overall, the vocational needs of international students were oriented toward the American job market. Implications for cross-cultural counseling are discussed. Sample characteristics are appended. [PsycINFO]


Spencer-Rodgers, J. (2001) Consensual and individual stereotypic beliefs about international students among American host nationals. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 25 (6), 639-657.

Examined the consensual stereotype of an extraordinarily heterogeneous social group--international students who are sojourning in the US--among American host nationals. The content and valence of the cultural stereotype was assessed using a multicomponent, free-response methodology with 100 American college students. Also examined were individual stereotypic representations, overall attitudes, and behaviors toward members of the international community. On the whole, consensual and individual stereotypic representations of international students were somewhat favorable, although a number of negative attributes were consistently ascribed to the group. The percentages of agreement among participants concerning the attributes of foreign students were substantial, indicating that international students are regarded as a fairly homogenous outgroup by domestic students, notwithstanding the extreme heterogeneity of the foreign student population. Individual stereotypic beliefs about international students were significantly correlated with overall attitudes and behaviors (social contact) toward the group. The negative evaluative content of participants' individual stereotypic beliefs was strongly related to prejudicial attitudes and social avoidance of the group. [PsycINFO]


Stidwill, H.F. (1985) Motives toward track and field competition of foreign and domestic grant-in-aid student-athletes in NCAA Division I colleges and universities. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (1-A), 102.


Stoynoff, S. (1996) Self-regulated learning strategies of international students: A study of high- and low-achievers. College Student Journal, 30 (3), 329-336. 

Explored the self-regulated learning strategies of 27 international students-focusing in particular on the 9 who earned the highest GPAs and the 8 who earned the lowest. Data were collected by means of an interview protocol. Both groups reported using many of the same self-regulated learning strategies; however, less successful students were much less likely to use strategies than more successful students. In particular, the regular use of social assistance may contribute to international students' success in postsecondary institutions. The results have implications for the academic advising and orienting of newly arrived international students. [PsycINFO]


Stoynoff, S. (1997) Factors associated with international students' academic achievement. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 24 (1), 56-68. 

Examined the factors associated with the academic achievement of 77 freshman international students during their 1st 6 mo in university. Language proficiency and selected learning and study strategies were found to correlate with students' academic performance (as measured by GPA, credits earned, and number of withdrawals). Interview data collected from a subgroup of the sample (18 students) revealed that the highest achievers in the group effectively integrated social assistance into their learning, whereas lower achievers did not. Higher achievers also spent more time studying, remained up-to-date in their courses, were better at test taking, and were better able to select the main ideas from spoken and written discourse. These results have implications for admission decisions, academic advising, and orienting of newly arrived international students. [PsycINFO]


Stoynoff, S.J. (1991) English language proficiency and study strategies as determinants of academic success for international students in U.S. universities. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 52 (1-A), 97.


Stuart, M.C. (2001) An investigation of locus of control, psychological adjustment, and adjustment to college among international students from the Caribbean, enrolled at a private, historically Black university. Dissertation Abstracts International, 61 (8-A), 3071.

This research study was carried out among a group of English-speaking, undergraduate students from the Caribbean, enrolled at a private, historically Black university. Two hypotheses looked at the difference between those students who were classified as internal and those who were classified as external with regard to (a) their psychological adjustment and (b) their adjustment to college. A third hypothesis investigated the contribution of locus of control on adjustment to college. Other hypotheses examined possible differences between females and males, as well as between younger and older students with regard to overall adjustment to college, based on locus of control orientation. The final hypothesis considered the relationship between age and psychological adjustment. Locus of control was the independent variable. The dependent variables were psychological adjustment and adjustment to college. Seventy-five students participated in this study. They completed three instruments (a) the Rotter Internal-External Locus of Control Scale, (b) the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire (SACQ), and (c) a demographic questionnaire. The first instrument provided a score for each student as an internal or external respondent. The SACQ provided T-scores on a psychological adjustment subscale, and a full scale score. Locus of control was found to be a significant predictor of adjustment to college, therefore this research hypothesis was supported. One-way ANOVA yielded no significant differences between the internal locus of control group and the external locus of control group on psychological adjustment or on overall adjustment to college. Results of two-way ANOVA indicated no support for the hypotheses which investigated differences between gender categories as well as between age categories on overall adjustment to college. The relationship between age and psychological adjustment was not found to be significant. A number of limitations were noted including the observation that the students who volunteered to participate and who completed the instruments were members of an organization on the university campus. This may have contributed to these students appearing to adjust overall in a more homogeneous way. Caution was therefore recommended in extrapolating the results of this study to other groups of students. [PsycINFO]


Sulaiman, K.M. (1987) The relationship of selected predictive variables to the academic success of students from the United Arab Emirates at American colleges and universities. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 47 (12-A, Pt 1), 4309.


Sumrain, I.A. (1987) Academic dishonesty: Comparing American and foreign students' attitudes. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 48 (5-A), 1091.


Surdam, J.C. (1981) A study of international student adaptation at the University of Wyoming. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 41 (10-A), 4296.


Surdam, J.C., & Collins, J.R. (1984) Adaptation of international students: A cause for concern. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25 (3), 240-245. 

Interviewed and administered an adaptation of the African Student Questionnaire to 101 male and 42 female university students from 35 countries. The questionnaire sought data in biographical, financial, academic, social, cultural, and religious areas. Adaptation was defined as the satisfaction of needs related to survival, or the process whereby an individual accommodates to an environment. One-way ANOVA supported the U-curve hypothesis: Ss who had been in the US for 2-4 yrs scored lower on the adaptation variable than did those who had recently arrived or those who had been in the US for more than 4 yrs. Additional factors associated with better adaptation included greater interaction with Americans, adequate English language facility on arrival, better-educated parents, and a positive religious attitude. Ss who perceived discrimination during the 1st 3 mo of their stay were less well-adapted, and participation in campus and community activities was not significantly related to adaptation. Counseling implications are noted. [PsycINFO]


Svarney, R.J. (1989) Counseling foreign law students. Journal of Counseling & Development, 68 (2), 228-231. 

Examines issues that foreign students studying US law may encounter. Typical presenting problems of both law and foreign students as discussed by F. J. Gutierrez (see record 1986-07758-001) involve anxiety from adjustment stress, depression from alienation and isolation, insomnia, and concerns about sexual functioning. Special problem areas that may underlie these symptoms in foreign law students include major changes in socioeconomic status (SES), unrealistic performance expectations, special difficulties in forming social support networks, and feelings of isolation or alienation because of discrimination. Special counseling considerations include giving the client cultural information, clarifying the counseling relationship, and considering the client's time commitment. [PsycINFO]


Swagler, M.A., & Ellis, M.V. (2003) Crossing the distance: Adjustment of Taiwanese graduate students in the United States. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50 (4), 420-437.

Using qualitative and quantitative methodologies across 3 samples, the authors investigated the cross-cultural adjustment of Taiwanese students attending graduate school in the United States. First, interviews with 25 Taiwanese students regarding their experiences in the United States revealed themes of language barriers, confidence about speaking English, social contact with Taiwanese and Americans, and cultural differences, which included the importance of being independent. Second, the results of a quantitative study (n=67) generally supported the hypotheses that communication apprehension and social contact predicted adaptation, whereas actual English ability did not, and that Taiwanese students identified being independent as important to their functioning in the United States. Third, a focus group with 4 graduate students provided a richer conceptualization of the interactions among the constructs. [PsycINFO]


Swan, N.R. (1979) Intercultural communication patterns, problems and trends of international students at the University of Missouri-Columbia. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 39 (8-A), 4595-4596.



Swatdipong, P. (1980) Sojourner alienation: An exploratory study of foreign student alienation. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 40 (7-A), 4242-4243.



Taha, H.Y. (1985) A comparative analysis of college students' satisfaction as perceived by selected foreign and American students at the University of Minnesota. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (11-A), 3300-3301.


Tanchareonrat, O. (1989) Selected characteristics and academic achievement of international graduate students at Illinois State University. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 49 (10-A), 2947-2948.


Tano, D., Hamazaki, T., Mogi-Hein, Y., & Takahashi, T. (1995) Japanese students in the U.S. higher education: Their preference for staying in the U.S.A. and academic motivation. College Student Journal, 29 (3), 347-355. 

Examined the folk model, which states that Japanese students (JS) in the US higher education system who prefer staying in the US, tend to become less motivated by academic goals, to obtain a more comprehensive picture of their preference for staying in the US. 103 JS responded to a mailed survey, in which information was collected on personal demographic variables, the degree to which they preferred to stay in the US or were tied to Japan, and their academic motivation. Results suggest that the folk model is invalid, since the higher degree of preference of JS for staying in the US did not diminish the degree of their academic motivation, but was positively correlated to younger age. JS who preferred staying in the US were those who tended to leave Japanese school education at a younger age, found more advantages in studying their majors in the US, and became less enmeshed into social roles to be fulfilled in Japan. [PsycINFO]


Taylor, D.L. (1989) The prediction of first-year academic success of undergraduate Malaysian students at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 50 (1-A), 124.


Tedeschi, G.J. (1993) Counselor and client variables and ratings of counselors by Chinese international students. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 54 (3-B), 1687.


Tedeschi, G.J., & Willis, F.N. (1993) Attitudes toward counseling among Asian international and native Caucasian students. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 7 (4), 43-54. 

Examined the attitudes toward counseling of 30 female and 36 male Asian international university students (aged 20-40 yrs) and 26 female and 22 male Caucasian university students (aged 18-35 yrs). Ss rated the importance of 4 counselor characteristics (ethnicity, university degree, age, and gender) and completed E. H. Fischer and J. I. Turner's attitudes scale on seeking professional psychological help. No gender or ethnic differences were found for the rankings of sources Ss would seek first to discuss a personal problem. Asian Ss preferred an older counselor of similar ethnicity. Women were more likely to indicate a need for help regardless of ethnic group. Caucasian women were more tolerant of the stigma of being a client, more likely to report interpersonal openness, and more likely to express confidence in mental health practitioners than Asian women or men from either group. [PsycINFO]


Thomas, M. (1995) A long way from home: Thinking about international students. Psychodynamic Counselling, 1 (3), 343-362. 

Drawing on work undertaken in a welfare context with 5 students from overseas, the author considers the effect of migration on the internal and external worlds of vulnerable individuals. Advancing the working notion that there is a simultaneous experiencing of maternal bereavement and the return of early infant anxieties, the paper makes use of Klein (1946) in its statement of crisis and of D. W. Winnicott (1958, 1971) for suggestions for its resolution. Migrants are seen as individuals who experience both bereavement and rebirth through the loss of home, culture, motherland, and mother coinciding with the return of the very confused, unintegrated experiences of early infancy. Coping strategies such as minimizing the loss, getting highly involved in meaningful social and/or political groups, or denial of the loss, are addressed. The transference issues present in the author's interaction with the students are examined as relating to migration. [PsycINFO]


Thomas, W.E. (1985) African undergraduate adjustment experiences in U.S. colleges and universities. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (6-A), 1572.



Thompson, R.L. (1984) Foreign student perceptions of orientation at a major university. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 44 (8-A), 2383.


Toyokawa, T., & Toyokawa, N. (2002) Extracurricular activities and adjustment of Asian international students: A study of Japanese students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 26 (4), 363-379.

Examined the association between Japanese students' engagement in extracurricular activities and their adjustment to US campus life. 84 Japanese students (aged 19-30 yrs) studying in a 10-mo program in the US completed surveys concerning: (1) engagement in extracurricular activities; (2) academic adjustment; (3) psychological adjustment; (4) active use of leisure time; and (5) extracurricular activity benefit. Results show that those subjects (Ss) who were more engaged in extracurricular activities reported higher scores on satisfaction with life in general in the host country than did those who were less engaged. Ss reporting high activity engagement were also more involved in academics and received more benefits from both academic and extracurricular activities. Ss reporting high engagement scored higher on active use of leisure time and social support from friends, and scored lower on psychological health than did Ss reporting low engagement; however, these mean score differences did not reach statistical significance. [PsycINFO]


Trice, A.D., & Elliott, J. (1993) Japanese students in America: II. College friendship patterns. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 20 (3), 262-264. 

183 Japanese nationals studying at American colleges completed a survey that asked them to rank their preference for spending time with other Japanese students, American students, and other international students for 5 activities. Ss disclosed a strong preference for spending time with home nationals for all 5 activities (studying English, studying other subjects, discussing personal problems, traveling, and campus social activities). Results are in contrast to previous studies of other international students who indicated a preference for spending time with host nationals studying. Older students, males, and degree seekers were more likely to want to spend time with American students than younger students, females, and students on a single-year exchange program. [PsycINFO]


Trice, A.G. (2001) Faculty Perceptions of Graduate International Students: The Benefits and Challenges. Higher Education. 


The attitudes of faculty members toward international students were studied through comparative case studies of four academic departments at three professional schools of a Midwestern university. The focus was on graduate students because most international students at a 4-year institution study at the graduate level. In all 54 faculty members in the public health, architecture, mechanical engineering, and materials science and engineering departments were interviewed. Faculty members displayed a range of awareness of any problems international graduate students might have. Some observed few differences between domestic and international students, but most indicated an awareness of academic and personal issues such students face. Most recognized difficulties with English as a major hurdle for these students, and more faculty members were aware of language problems than any other issue. Many acknowledged the difficulties in cultural adjustment. Faculty members tended to identify the same areas students in other studies had indicated as obstacles in their studies in the United States. Some differences among departments are noted. [ERIC]



Trimino, A.M. (1983) A study of attitude toward the disabled of foreign students from selected geographical areas. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 44 (4-A), 1057-1058.


Trombetti, I.A. (1986) Helping students with limited English proficiency realize the American dream. Journal of College Student Personnel, 27 (4), 367-368. 

Suggests that international students, like native students, wish to realize the American dream of social and economic mobility through education. A group interaction strategy designed to provide special support services to international students with limited English proficiency is described. [PsycINFO]


Tsai, B. (1986) The relationship between the university environment and creative attitudes among Chinese graduate students in Taiwan and in the United States. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 46 (12-A, Pt 1), 3624.


Tseng, W., & Newton, F.B. (2002) International Students' Strategies for Well-Being. College Student Journal, 36 (4), 591-597.

 How and why some international students experience their study abroad lives in positive ways is largely ignored in existing research. In this study, two international students were interviewed for their perception of the sources of well-being during viewed their study abroad experience. A grounded theory analysis showed that they related strategies for well-being most strongly to tactics for gaining general well-being and coping skills for adjusting to study abroad life from the perspective of their study abroad goals. This study built a model of how international students exercise possible ways to maintain well-being through dents their study abroad experience. Furthermore, the process of the qualitative approach itself provided for a better understanding of international students and an implication for future research. [PsycINFO]


Tucker, D.L. Understanding Learning Styles and Study Strategies of Korean Students in American Colleges and Universities: A Research Study with Recommendations for Faculty and Academic Advisors. Information & Technology. 


This study addressed two specific questions regarding Korean students at American colleges and universities. One is a question of accommodation, and the other is a question of orientation: to what extent do we need to change our classroom format and teaching methodology (and types of assignments) to accommodate students from different cultures and countries; and how can we best orient foreign students and assist them in making the transition into the American way of learning? Personal background explaining the author's interest in this issue is provided. Differences in cultural orientation, specifically how differing cultural values determine the form and style of communication, interpersonal behavior and interaction, and ways of learning are examined. Reflections on two specific issues involving essay-writing and scholarly research that confront the American teacher unfamiliar with Asian culture and learning are included, i.e., writing styles and definitions of plagiarism. Four tables contrast American and Korean writing style, classroom interaction and behavior, content of tests and papers, and view of scholarship. Suggestions are offered related to accommodation, orientation, and strategies for assessment. Three simple approaches are recommended--awareness of cultural differences, teacher modeling, and use of several types of interaction activities. Nine interview questions are appended. [ERIC]



Tufekci, A. (2002) Turkish Students' Parenting Beliefs and Practices. Elementary and Early Childhood Education.       


This study investigated parenting beliefs and practices of Turkish students attending a university in a small U.S. town. Data sources included interviews with the parents, and observations of their children. Highlighting differences between the Turkish students and other Turkish migrants, the study found that the most commonly mentioned characteristic of a good parent by the participants was sacrifice. Patience and mercy toward children were also mentioned. Hoping for a closer relationship with their children than they had with their parents, and parenting as mainly the reasonability of mothers were common threads among the participants. Important differences were found between families holding traditional values and families holding western values. Although these differences support the literature, it was argued that the explanation for these differences lies not in SES and parents' educational level, but rather in the differences in the families' interpretations of Islam and how they related to the values the families hold. The findings pose implications for future research into the role and influence on Islam in Turkish family life and parenting and the reasons for the absence of religion in such studies to date. [ERIC]



Udeinya, C.S. (1980) Psychological differentiation of Nigerian undergraduate students in the United States. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 41 (2-A), 607.


Ueno, J. (2001) Detraditionalisation: Japanese students in the USA. Language Culture & Curriculum, 14 (1), 76-89.

Investigated ethnic identity formation of Japanese students temporarily living in the US. Interviews were conducted with 11 Japanese students (aged 15 yrs) enrolled jointly in Japanese Saturday School and US public schools while their parents conducted business in the US. Results show that Ss revealed a mixture of Japanese and American characteristics. While Ss appreciated both sets of values, they never tried to choose 1 or the other exclusively. Half the Ss located their identity midway between US American and Japanese. Ss did not regard memories of home negatively. Rather, they tried to retain their memories and values. Ss rejected neither culture, but allowed both to coexist as independent value systems in their minds. It is concluded that Ss' identity formation follows a process of detraditionalization. [PsycINFO]


Val, E., & Quick, S. (1983) Foreign medical graduates and board certification: Myths and realities. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140 (2), 184-188. 

Results of a survey on American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology certification were used to compare 503 foreign medical graduates (FMGs) and 2,332 US medical graduates (USMGs) on several variables: demographic characteristics, attitudes toward certification, performance, and personal experience with the examination process. FMGs were more similar than dissimilar to USMGs in attitudes, values, and opinions about certification, and it is concluded that the differences are not sufficient to warrant some of the prevalent misconceptions about FMGs. [PsycINFO]


Valdes, T.M. (1979) Psychological and behavioral characteristics and adjustment of Latin American international students to U.S. college life. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 40 (3-B), 1433-1434.


Valdes, T.M., & Osborne, G.E. (1980) Vocational preferences of Latin-American international students. Revista Interamericana de Psicologia, 14 (1), 57-59. 

Studied the use of the Holland Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) with a Latin-American population of 133 Ss to compare this population's vocational preferences with VPI norms. The similarity of Latin-American international students' vocational preferences with US-developed norms suggests that the VPI may be potentially useful with a non-US population. [PsycINFO]


Van Harte, E.L. (1995) The relationship of foreign country exposure to the cultural value-orientations and racial identity development of Black South Africans. Dissertation Abstracts International, 56 (4-B), 2357. 

A combined quantitative and qualitative approach was used to explore the relationships among foreign country exposure, cultural value-orientations, and racial identity development of Black South African international students in the United States. Data were collected by way of surveys (n = 192), semi-structured interviews (n = 10), and a personal data sheet (n = 192). There were significant relationships among foreign country exposure and racial identity development. Members of the culturally non-exposed group (new arrivals) differed significantly from the culturally exposed group (long-term students) on racial identity attitudes. The two groups were also significantly related on cultural value-orientations. In addition, significant relationships were found among racial identity attitudes and cultural value-orientation preferences for the culturally non-exposed and culturally exposed groups. [PsycINFO]


Van Oudenhoven, J.P., & Van der Zee, K.I. (2002) Predicting multicultural effectiveness of international students: The Multicultural Personality Questionnaire. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 26 (6), 679-694.

The present study considered the reliability and validity of the 78-item revised version of the Multicultural Personality Questionnaire (MPQ), a multidimensional instrument aimed at measuring multicultural effectiveness of expatriate employees and students. The questionnaire includes scales for cultural empathy, open-mindedness, emotional stability, social initiative and flexibility. Participants were native and foreign students of an international business school (N=171, aged 16-31 yrs) in the Netherlands. The MPQ scales appeared to be more strongly predictive of adjustment of international students as compared to native students. Moreover, the instrument was able to explain variance in students' adjustment beyond self-efficacy. [PsycINFO]


Vaz, P. (1985) Stress, adjustment and social relations of foreign students. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 45 (7-A), 2259.


Vega, W.M. (1989) The educational problems of American Samoan migrant students at Compton Community College. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 50 (5-A), 1231-1232.


Verghese, C. (1989) Effects of brief structured group counseling and study skills training on the academic performance, study behaviors, and attitudes of foreign university students. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 49 (9-A), 2544.


Vogel, S.H. (1986) Toward understanding the adjustment problems of foreign families in the college community: The case of Japanese wives at the Harvard University Health Services. Journal of American College Health, 34 (6), 274-279. 

Discusses cultural differences and the problems Japanese families may have (e.g., communication problems, anxiety about living overseas, social isolation, impact on family relationships) in the Harvard community. The use of university health services by Japanese families is presented as an illustration. [PsycINFO]


von Dorpowski, H. (1978) The problems of Oriental, Latin American, and Arab students in U.S. colleges and universities as perceived by these foreign students and by foreign student advisors. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 38 (12-A), 7160.



Vukeh, E.N. (Communication problems of West African students at the University of Minnesota. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International. Vol 46(7-A), Jan 1986, 1807, US: Univ Microfilms International. (NO ABSTRACT AVAILABLE)



Walter-Samli, J.H. (1979) Counseling needs and support systems: Key considerations for cross-cultural counseling. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 39 (11-A), 6553-6554.


Walter-Samli, J.H., & Samli, A.C. (1979) A model of career counseling for international students. Vocational Guidance Quarterly, 28 (1), 48-55. 

Presents 5 career counseling needs of international students: (a) sensitization to actual career opportunities back home, (b) close contact with academic and international advisors, (c) mid-program evaluation of career objective realism, (d) evaluation of the cultural relevance of practical training, and (e) preparation for reentry into the home culture. Counselors require improved sensitivity to these needs. [PsycINFO]


Wan, G. (2001) The learning experience of Chinese students in American universities: A cross-cultural perspective. College Student Journal, 35 (1), 28-44.

This article reports a case study on the cross-cultural learning experiences of 2 Chinese students in American universities. It described their experiences in the following areas: motivations for learning, frustrations and satisfactions, strategies used to cope with language inefficiency, assumptions of the impact of their learning on their lives, and awareness of cultural differences in classroom and daily life. The study identified the differences in culture, language, and social and political systems between China and the US as the major sources for these students' positive and negative experiences. It also pointed out that educators can assist these students by becoming aware of their home culture, different learning styles, frustrations in adjusting to school life and in overcoming cultural shocks; and by helping them adjust to American educational system and learn about the American culture. [PsycINFO]


Wan, T. (1991) Factors associated with academic stress experienced by international students in U.S. universities: Testing a cognitive model of stress. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 52 (3-A), 809.


Wang, C. (1993) Friendship patterns of Chinese students and their adjustment in the United States. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 54 (3-A), 846.


Wang, M. (1992) A cross-cultural study of assertiveness with Chinese and American students. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 52 (7-A), 2325-2326.


Wang, M., Chan, F., Thomas, K.R., Lin, S., & Larson, P. (1997, Winter) Coping style and personal responsibility as factors in the perception of individuals with physical disabilities by Chinese international students. Rehabilitation Psychology, 42 (4), 303-316.

This study examined coping style and personal responsibility as factors influencing the perceptions of Chinese international students regarding people with physical disabilities. Sixty Chinese international students were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions (optimistic-not responsible, optimistic-responsible, pessimistic-not responsible, and pessimistic-responsible), and then asked to view a videotape of an interview with a Chinese international student in a wheelchair who assumed one of the four roles listed above. After viewing the tape, the students were asked to complete the Semantic Differential Scale and the Subject Rating Scale. The ANCOVA results indicated that the optimistic-not responsible condition resulted in the most positive evaluations, with the optimistic-pessimistic variable being more potent than the responsible-not responsible variable. Implications for clinical practice and rehabilitation program development in Chinese communities are discussed. [PsycINFO]


Wanga, L.B. (1996) The influence of dogmatism on cultural adaptation of international students at the University of Minnesota. Dissertation Abstracts International, 56 (8-A), 3065. 

This study investigated the influence of personality variables on the adjustment of international students to cultural and academic life in the United States of America. The specific personality characteristics investigated in this study were open and closed mindedness (Dogmatism - Rokeach, 1960). The intention here was to collect student personal and background information regarding their belief-disbelief systems and their coping with life experiences while studying in the United States. A comparative analysis using correlations and analysis of variance was used to determine the degree of association between open and closed mindedness and the level of adjustment. All 350 international students new to the United States of America who were enrolled at the University of Minnesota in fall of 1990 were included in the study. A total number of participants who responded to the survey questionnaires were 303 from 50 countries. The findings of this study were discussed from the perspective of what was learned from the results of six different personality variables, considered essential in sojourner adjustment to new environment. These were: dogmatic thinking; program of study the student is enrolled in; the influence of orientation program; the effect of American friends; the influence of home culture; and finally how adjustment impacts on academic performance. On all these variables, dogmatic thinking, orientation programs and region of origin showed significant influence on how international students adjust to life in Minnesota. [PsycINFO]


Ward, C., & Searle, W. (1991) The impact of value discrepancies and cultural identity on psychological and sociocultural adjustment of sojourners. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 15 (2), 209-225. 

155 sojourners (tertiary students) from 42 countries completed a questionnaire that assessed psychological (mood disturbance) and sociocultural (social difficulty) adjustment in relation to several variables. Cultural knowledge, cross-cultural experience and training, attitudes toward host culture, personality (extraversion and locus of control), cultural distance, loneliness, amount of contact with host and conationals, cultural identity, and values were studied. Multiple regression analysis indicated that loneliness and cultural distance combined to account for 27% of the variance in mood disturbance. Cultural identity and cultural knowledge were significant predictors of social difficulty. Contrary to expectations, value discrepancies were not significantly related to either psychological or sociocultural adjustment. (French & Spanish abstracts) [PsycINFO]


Wavomba, P.T. (1992) Adjustment difficulties and self-concept of academic ability of East African and Far Eastern students attending selected universities in the state of Michigan: A comparative study. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 52 (10-A), 3518.


Weinstein, L., & de Man, A. (1987) U.S. students do not know as much as foreign students about the world. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 25 (3), 202-203. 

Investigated the knowledge of 16 US college students regarding world geography relative to that of 16 foreign students studying in the US. Foreign students were significantly less ignorant of names and locations of the countries of the world. [PsycINFO]


Weiss, J.M., & Davis, D. (1977) Predicting success in psychiatric training for foreign medical graduates: II. Patterns in course. Psychological Medicine, 7 (2), 311-316. 

Faculty ratings of 22 foreign medical graduates (FMGs), all of whom entered psychiatric residency training at the University of Missouri-Columbia from 1966 through 1973, were compared with those of a similar group of North American medical graduates (AMGs). An on-going evaluation program provided data for a variety of parameters ranging from theoretical knowledge to clinical skills. Results indicate that in most areas of performance the median FMG started at a level substantially lower than that of the median AMG and very slowly caught up. When achievement criteria were utilized it became apparent that, at least by the 3rd year of training, superior FMGs (i.e., those who, at the end of training, were offered any kind of faculty appointment at any North American Medical School) could equal or surpass the median performance of superior AMGs, whereas marginal residents (i.e., those who had been put on formal probation or were dropped from the program during their course of training), whether foreign or native-born, seldom attained even competence in most major spheres of functioning. [PsycINFO]


Wheeless, L.R., Erickson, K.V., & Behrens, J.S. (1986) Cultural differences in disclosiveness as a function of locus of control. Communication Monographs, 53 (1), 36-46.  

Studied disclosiveness of 226 US citizens and 134 citizens of nonwestern countries as a function of locus of control (LOC). Ss were US and international university students. Analyses detected low-level differences in disclosiveness and LOC between US and international Ss. However, when separate analyses were conducted for internals and externals, Ss with external LOC displayed substantially more disclosiveness differences based on their cultural origins. Less depth, greater amount, less internal control locus, and more positively-intended disclosiveness were found more in US Ss. Results suggest that LOC is a mediating variable that helps to explain multidimensional disclosive differences between people of US and nonwestern cultural origins. [PsycINFO ]


White, A.J., & Brown, S.E. (1983, Fall) Academic factors affecting the scholastic performance of international students. College Student Journal, 17 (3), 268-272. 

A survey of international students (mean age 28 yrs) who had successfully completed at least 2 terms of coursework at the University of Georgia showed that they generally were not performing at their optimum scholastic level. There were 7 general clusters of impediments. Those with the highest level of impingement were verbal study techniques, English usage, test taking, and classroom instruction. Academic success was somewhat less affected or influenced by quantitative factors. Findings should be considered in terms of cross-cultural adjustments and personal adaptive patterns that foreign students often encounter if the academic success of these students in American higher education settings is to be enhanced. The academic impediments to scholastic success of foreign students may have greatest impact during their initial terms of academic coursework. [PsycINFO]


Wilcox, L.O. (1975) The prediction of academic success of undergraduate foreign students. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 35 (12-B, Pt 1), 6084.


Williamson, G. (1982) Impediments to health care for the foreign student. Journal of the American College Health Association, 30 (4), 189-190. 

Argues that many factors--attributable to both the student and his or her culture (e.g., language barriers, culture shock) and to the health care provider (e.g., the stereotyping of foreigners, ignorance of other cultures)--frustrate the provision of health care to foreign students. Solutions for overcoming these barriers are suggested. [PsycINFO]


Wilson, S.R. (1996) East Asian international students' stressors and coping behaviors. Dissertation Abstracts International, 57 (3-A), 1022. 

The purpose of this study was two-fold. First, it was an investigation and description of the stressors and concerns of a sample population of East Asian international students from the countries of China, Japan, Taiwan and Korea, as they studied in the Northeastern United States. Second, this study sought to broaden an understanding of East Asian international students' coping beliefs and behaviors. It was the aim of this research to contribute to the process of informing future services and programs for East Asian international students studying in the United States. This study utilized both quantitative and qualitative research methods. One-hundred and nine East Asian international students completed the International Student Questionnaire, representing forty-two females and sixty-seven males. Analysis of variance and unpaired t-tests were used to test for differences based on gender and country of origin. A semi-structured interview was conducted with five male and four female East Asian international students. The semi-structured interview contained questions regarding concerns, coping beliefs and behaviors, beliefs about mental health issues, and attitudes toward counseling. Findings reveal that subjects are generally hardy, express their concerns in moderate terms, and hold positive self-portraits. They are most concerned with academic achievement, maintaining contact with their families, English language problems, and issues of cultural adjustment. These students prefer to cope with their concerns by thinking them through by themselves, but also engage in a wide range of coping strategies. When they seek help from others, they primarily turn to their friends, particularly co-nationals. No significant gender differences were observed. Chinese students rated their concerns as more severe and their feelings more frequently negative than other students. Korean students' concerns were the least severely rated. Taiwanese students expressed positive feelings more… [PsycINFO]


Wilson, W.D. (1976) Social relationships of international students attending Oklahoma State University. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 36 (11-A), 7223.


Wilton, L., & Constantine, M.G. (2003, Fall) Length of Residence, Cultural Adjustment Difficulties, and Psychological Distress Symptoms in Asian and Latin American International College Students.  Journal of College Counseling, 6 (2), 177-187.

The authors examined cultural adjustment and psychological distress issues in 190 Asian and Latin American international college students. Findings revealed that Latin American students reported higher levels of psychological distress than did their Asian peers. Moreover, length of residence in the U.S. was negatively associated with psychological distress symptoms, and acculturative distress and intercultural competence concerns were positively related to psychological distress in both groups. Implications of the findings are discussed. [PsycINFO]


Wingfield, S.R. (2001) Perceptions of culture shock of international students at Tennessee State University. Dissertation Abstracts International, 62 (3-A), 887.

The purpose of this study was to measure the stress levels of international students studying at Tennessee State University. Cultural shock develops when students are placed in a new country, attending a new school with unfamiliar symbols of identification. The demographic variables in the study included age, sex, martial status, country, religion, degree sought, counseling, living arrangements, length of stay in the United States, number of countries visited, number of American friends, participation in American activities, grades, the degree of understanding spoken English, knowledge of the city, and satisfaction with American life. The first influence measured by the survey was emotional symptoms which consisted of degrees of unhappiness, depression, problems concentrating, and worrying. The second influence measured by the survey was physical symptoms which consisted of headaches, sickness, stomachaches, and absent-mindedness. The third influence measured by the survey was behavior symptoms which consisted of degrees of feeling different, suicide thoughts, and laziness. The fourth influence measured by the survey was attitudinal symptoms which consisted of degrees of nervousness, not understanding what was going on, stubbornness, and having a complex about Americans. A sign and table was set up in the university's campus center inviting international students to participate in the survey. Ninety-nine students elected to complete the survey. The study showed no significant difference among age, sex, martial status, religion, counseling, living arrangements, knowledge of the city, participation in American activities, having American friends, communication skills, degree being sought, ability to speak English, orientation, length of stay in the United States, and emotional, physical, behavioral, or attitudinal symptoms. There was a statistically significant difference in grades and emotional symptoms. There was a statistically significant difference in satisfaction with American life and emotional and physical symptoms. There was a statistically significant difference in having a counselor and behavioral symptoms. There was a statistically significant difference in English speaking skills and behavioral and attitudinal symptoms. There was a statistically significant difference in religion and attitudinal symptoms. [PsycINFO]


Wolfe, J.G. (1982) The research of international students as an indicator of sex role stereotype and congruence with national development. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 42 (10-A), 4246.



Wong, A.T. (1979) A study of the relationship between the proficiency in English and cultural background of Chinese immigrant students and their educational and social development. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 39 (7-A), 3988-3989.



Woo, H., & Dominick, J.R. (2003, Spring) Acculturation, Cultivation, and Daytime TV Talk Shows. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 80 (1), 109-27. 


Explores the cultivation phenomenon among international college students in the United States by examining the connection between levels of acculturation, daytime TV talk show viewing, and beliefs about social reality. Finds that students who scored low on acculturation and watched a great deal of daytime talk shows had a more negative perception of human relationships in the United States. [ERIC]


Wu, X. (1994) Patterns of adjustment concerns and needs perceived by international students in a community college environment in Iowa. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 54 (7-A), 2426.


Xu, J. (2003) Chinese students' adaptation to learning in an American university: A multiple case study. Dissertation Abstracts International, 63 (7-A), 2432.

 Students from different cultures have experienced different teaching/learning systems in their home countries. The Chinese teaching/learning system is particularly different from the US system because of the great culture distinctions between the two nations. Despite the increasing number of Chinese international students in the US colleges and universities and the suggestion that these students have great difficulties in adjusting to the US system, few studies had been done to explore these students' experiences in adapting to the teaching and learning approaches in the US. The purpose of this study was to describe the process eleven Chinese international graduate students enrolled in an American Midwest university went through in adapting to the US teaching and learning system and to identify the coping strategies they utilized in the adaptation. The participants were selected from the newly arrived Chinese international students who had obtained a graduate degree back in China during the previous 5 years. The qualitative research paradigm was adopted for the multiple case study. Interview was the main data collection method. A total of four interviews were conducted with each of the eleven participants in different stages of the semester. Data were analyzed through direct interpretation, categorical aggregation, pattern seeking, and naturalistic generalization. Although the participants were academically successful in their study for the first semester, they had experienced difficulties caused mainly by the language deficiency and the lack of awareness of the great differences in teaching and learning between their home institutions in China and the US institution, such as the differences in expectations and in student performance assessment for a course. The data and report were verified through member check and peer review. Other measures were also taken to reduce research biases. The results of the study were discussed in light of the existing literature. Recommendations were also provided to the major audience of the study. [PsycINFO]


Yakubu, D.M. (1980) The effects of acculturation to Western norms on pictorial depth perception among Africans. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 41 (1-A), 72.


Yang, B., & Clum, G.A. (1994, Summer) Life stress, social support, and problem-solving skills predictive of depressive symptoms, hopelessness, and suicide ideation in an Asian student population: A test of a model. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior, 24 (2), 127-139. 

Tested both a stress-problem-solving model and a stress-social-support model in the etiology of depressive symptoms, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation (SI) among 88 Asian international students (aged 18-40 yrs) in the US. Problem-solving skills and social support were hypothesized as 2 mediators between life stress and depressive symptoms, hopelessness, and SI. Ss completed measures of SI and depression, hopelessness, life experiences, problem-solving skills, and loneliness. SI was related to higher levels of depressive symptoms and hopelessness, and these symptoms were related to negative life stress, loneliness, and problem-solving deficits. Social support interacted with life stress when predicting SI, but did not predict SI directly. Stepwise regression analyses and a path analysis indicated that models of stress-problem solving and stress-social support could be generalized. [PsycINFO]


Yang, B., Teraoka, M., Eichenfield, G.A., & Audas, M.C. (1994) Meaningful relationships between Asian international and U.S. college students: A descriptive study. College Student Journal, 28 (1), 108-115. 

Surveyed 129 Asian international students from Japan, the Republic of China (Taiwan), and the People's Republic of China (mainland China) to determine barriers to, and facilitators of, meaningful relationships with US students, staff, and faculty at a large Midwestern University. Differences between groups were found, and cultural differences were proposed. Sex differences were also found. Data suggest that levels of social isolation from US students were lower than expected. [PsycINFO]


Yang, J. (1993) Communications, knowledge and attitudes: A look into acculturation patterns of Chinese students in the United States. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 53 (8-A), 2762.


Yau, T.Y., Sue, D., & Hayden, D. (1992) Counseling style preference of international students.  Journal of Counseling Psychology, 39 (1), 100-104. 

Examined, with a single-S research design, the counseling-style preference of 6 international clients and 1 White-American client within and across 4 counseling sessions. All clients first listened to an audiotape (analog) counseling session containing a problem-solving approach and a client-centered approach and rated both approaches. The clients then rated these 2 counseling styles in actual counseling sessions. In contrast to past research findings, no overall preference was found for either approach. Preferences for a particular counseling style also changed from session to session. In addition, preferences exhibited during the analog portion of the study were often different from those expressed during the actual counseling sessions. [PsycINFO]


Yeh, H., & Yang, S. (2003) Listen to Their Voices: Expectations and Experiences of Asian Graduate Students. Higher Education.  


The experiences of Asian graduate students in the United States were explored to find out their reasons for coming to study at a particular university and to determine ways to improve their early experiences at U.S. institutions. Interviews were conducted with 12 graduate students in the universities School of Education. Seven of the 12 had chosen the university because the School of Education was highly regarded, and 5 students mentioned that the school was affordable. Six students chose to come in part because the university was in a small town, which seemed safer and possibly more welcoming. Participants expressed many disappointments in their initial experiences and interactions with Americans and many difficulties in adapting to the U.S. environment. These suggest the need for better supporting structures, especially when students arrive. The issue of cultural difference was always important for these students, and the differences between Eastern and Western cultures was especially evident in respect to class participation. The crucial barrier was English language proficiency, and students felt difficulty in expressing themselves in English even though they had scored well on the Test of English as a Foreign Language. Students were in strong agreement that prospective students should be well-grounded in English language skills. Their biggest concerns were about their ability to write and speak in English and their ability to read material in English rapidly. Implications for the development of programs to help foreign students adapt to the U.S. educational environment are discussed. [ERIC]


Yi, J.K., Giseala, J., & Kishimoto, Y.. (2003) Utilization of Counseling Services by International Students.  Journal of Instructional Psychology, 30 (4), 333-342.

This study examined the utilization of counseling services by international students at a major university in Texas. Five hundred and sixteen international students visited the university counseling center during the academic years of 1992 and 1998. Their demographic characteristics, referral resources, types of services sought, as well as their self-reported presenting concerns, were examined. Those students who used the counseling center for career counseling were more likely to be younger, female, and of undergraduate status. Those students who used the counseling center for personal problems were more likely to be older, male, and graduate students. "Academics/Grades," "Anxiety," and "Depression" were the top three concerns for undergraduate students while "Depression," "Time Management," and "Relationship with Romantic Partner" were the top three "extremely worried" concerns for graduate students. Culturally responsive programming, implications for counseling, limitations of this study, and suggestions for future study are discussed. [PsycINFO]


Ying, Y. (2003) Academic achievement and quality of overseas study among Taiwanese students in the United States. College Student Journal, 37 (3), 470-480.

 Using a multidimensional model and a longitudinal design, the study examined academic performance and quality of overseas study in a group of 155 Taiwanese graduate students at approximately one year after arriving in the United States. The international students' academic performance was significantly predicted by better English writing skills and pursuit of an engineering degree, while the quality of their overseas study was predicted by more relationships with Americans, fewer problems with loneliness, and majoring in engineering or social sciences and humanities. Implications for programs that may enhance their academic performance and quality of overall study are discussed. [PsycINFO]


Ying, Y., & Liese, L.H. (1990) Initial adaptation of Taiwan foreign students to the United States: The impact of prearrival variables. American Journal of Community Psychology, 18 (6), 825-845. 

 Examined initial adaptation of 81 female and 91 male students from Taiwan by using information gathered prior to their departure. A multidimensional model postulated initial postarrival emotional well-being and adjustment to be related to predeparture emotional well-being, demographics, personality, understanding of life in the US, available resources, and problems anticipated. Higher postarrival depressive level was best predicted by higher prearrival depression in both sexes, as measured on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Initial adjustment was predicted by higher subjective ratings of English ability for both sexes, lower feminine tendency and stronger externality (i.e., more outgoing and self-confident) for men, and availability of a larger potential social support network in the US for women. [PsycINFO]


Ying, Y., & Liese, L.H. (1991) Emotional well-being of Taiwan students in the U.S.: An examination of pre- to post-arrival differential. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 15 (3), 345-366. 

 Tested the pre- to postarrival change in emotional well-being of a group of 171 Taiwan students in the US by administering a Chinese version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. A multidimensional model postulate to be predictive of change in emotional well-being consisted of prearrival well-being, demographics, personality, presence and severity of problems experienced, change of pre- to postarrival level of control, adequacy of prearrival preparation, size of the Chinese community surrounding the students, social support, language competence, and adequacy of financial resources. Over half of the students experienced a decline in emotional well-being, while the remainder reported no change or improved mood level. (French & Spanish abstracts) [PsycINFO]


Ying, Y., & Liese, L.H. (1994) Initial adjustment of Taiwanese students to the United States: The impact of postarrival variables. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 25 (4), 466-477. 

 Examines the adjustment of 172 Taiwanese students during their 1st mo in the US as part of a broader investigation on international student adjustment; 86.6% of the Ss were single. Assessment was measured 2-3 mo after arrival by the California Psychological Inventory. A multidimensional model postulated adjustment to be mediated by demographics, personality, number and severity of problems experienced, extent of decline in level of control from pre- to postarrival, adequacy of prearrival preparation, size of the Chinese community surrounding the student, social support, language competence, and financial resources. The model accounted for 39% of the variance in adjustment, indicating a moderately high level of adjustment with younger Ss adjusting best. [PsycINFO]


Yoon, E., & Portman, T.A. (2004) Critical Issues of Literature on Counseling International Students.  Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development, 32 (1), 33-44.

 A review of the American professional counseling literature brings to light 5 patterns concerning research related to counseling international students. Emergent themes include universal vs. subgroup characteristics, environmental vs. personal factors, developmental vs. pathological perspectives, counseling goals, and methodological problems. [PsycINFO]


York, M.W., Wilderman, S.K., & Hardy, S.T. (1988) Categories of implicit interpersonal communication: Cross-cultural responses. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 67 (3), 735-741. 

 Examined the responses of 20 US and 50 international undergraduates to 8 displays of interpersonal communication. These displays were intended to represent the 8 interpersonal roles specified by T. Leary (1957). Nonnational Ss perceived the displays in the same ways as US Ss. Findings suggest that the 2 tests used, the Interpersonal Check List and the Semantic Differential, both measure connotative meaning. There were few cultural-group differences in ratings on these measures. [PsycINFO]


Zarghouni, A. (1989) An analysis of international students' adjustment and academic success in a predominantly Black and a predominantly White urban university. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 49 (8-A), 2118.


Zhai, L. (2002) Studying International Students: Adjustment Issues and Social Support. Higher Education.  


This study investigated international student adjustment issues and needed social support. Data were obtained from individual interviews with 10 international students at The Ohio State University. Results indicate that international students experience significant problems in their coping with U.S. education, cultural differences, and language challenges. Friends and family were the most preferred resources to seek help. Providing academic orientation, improving student counseling, and strengthening language support for international students are vital for the successful adjustment of international students at U.S. universities. [ERIC]


Zhang, N., & Dixon, D.N. (2003) Acculturation and Attitudes of Asian International Students Toward Seeking Psychological Help. Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development, 31 (3), 205-222. 

 Relationships between acculturation and attitudes toward psychological help seeking were studied with 170 Asian international students. Results showed a significant relationship between levels of acculturation and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. Significant correlations were found between students' levels of acculturation and stigma tolerance and confidence in mental health practitioners. [PsycINFO]


Zhang, N., & Dixon, D.N. (2001) Multiculturally Responsive Counseling: Effects on Asian Students' Ratings of Counselors. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 29 (4), 253-62. 


The authors conducted an analog study to investigate the difference between culturally responsive and culturally neutral counselors. Sixty Asian international students were interviewed by six counselors. Students in the culturally responsive condition rated their counselors as significantly more expert, attractive, and trustworthy than those in the culturally neutral condition. [ERIC]



Zhang, N., & Dixon, D.N. (2003). Acculturation and Attitudes of Asian International Students toward Seeking Psychological Help. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 31 (3), 205-22. 


Relationships between acculturation and attitudes toward psychological help seeking were studied with 170 Asian international students. Results showed a significant relationship between levels of acculturation and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. Significant correlations were found between students' levels of acculturation and stigma tolerance and confidence in mental health practitioners. [ERIC]


Zhang, X. (1992) Residential preferences: A brain drain study on Chinese students in the United States. [Dissertation Abstract] Dissertation Abstracts International, 53 (5-A), 1423.


Zimmerman, S. (1995) Perceptions of intercultural communication competence and international student adaptation to an American campus. Communication Education, 44 (4), 321-335. 

  Examined the communicative experience (CMEs) of 101 international college students (aged 17-41 yrs) studying on an American campus in order to identify areas of importance that would help them better adapt to the campus. Ss participated in interviews that assessed their CMEs on campus and in the community and their adjustment to US culture, and that evaluated the effectiveness of the university's programs for international students. While the affective and behavioral dimensions of intercultural communication competence are related to students' satisfaction with their communication skills, talking with American students was found to be the most important factor in perceptions of communication competency and adjusting to American life. How long Ss had lived in the US and in the local community and had attended the university were not related to their perceptions of adjustment to or satisfaction with communication in their new environment. [PsycINFO]



The following issues should be considered when conducting further research or exploring the concerns of international students in the U.S.  In my review, these topics were scarcely covered (if at all) and would benefit from more indepth investigation.


  • Impact of religion on adjusting/coping to a new lifestyle
  • Why students from different regions (Africa, Caribbean, etc.) adapt to the U.S. culture differently
  • Average length or progress of adaptation/acculturation in short-term and long-term SA programs
  • Experiments using real stimuli rather than the usual surveys and interviews (ex. simulated stress environments or exposure to new obstacles)
  • International students’ perceptions of gender (before studying abroad, during, and after)
  • International students’ perspectives on American culture
  • Influence that U.S. lifestyle has on worldview, traditional cultural values, and heritage of international students
  • Why some students stay in the U.S. to further their education and why others leave
  • Expectations and standards of international students from teachers and peers
  • Expectations from international students about their professors and of themselves
  • Stress/anxiety developed because of failing to meet their own standards of excellence
  • Adaptive skills of international students compared to those of Americans
  • Effect of media and entertainment on international students culture shock
  • Source of strength in coping skills
  • Pre and post designs in research
  • Process of reentry back into foreign (original) countries
  • Americans’ extent of global knowledge compared to international students’
  • Review of how effectively international students’ needs are being met (or not being met)
  • Gender complications in international students (and issues with marriage, children, age, etc.)
  • Stigma of being a foreigner (possible factor in why international students mostly associate with other international students?)
  • Acculturation/adaptation similarities in Americans studying abroad and international students studying in the U.S.
  • Living arrangements (influence of host family on orientation to culture)
  • Longterm impact of American studies on international students
  • Designing programs for international students that specifically work for them