This reference has good chapters on Bessel, Struve, Fraunhofer, Fellowes and Henderson:
Parallax, Alan W. Hirshfeld, W. H. Freeman 2001
This is an excellent reference for 19th centruy astronomy:
The History of Astronomy from Herschel to Hertzsprung, Deiter B. Hermann, Cambridge 1973
This continues to be very valuable:
Cambridge Illustrated History of Astronomy, edited by Michael Hoskin, Cambridge University Press 1997.
This link provides a look at the largest telescope of the 19th century:
I highly recommend this delightful account of the a harrowing expedition by Isobel Gill: