BPAA Lecture Series 2002   

Lecture 9

Building the Ladder

Doppler Finds a Shift
Leavitt Finds a Relationship
Shapely Starts a Ladder


The following references provide a technical though reasonably accessible introduction to the astrophysics of stars and galaxies. Both are available in paperback.

The Stars: their structure and evolution, R.J. Tayler, Cambridge, 1994

Galaxies: their structure and evolution, R.J. Tayler, Cambridge, 1993

This web site provides an excellent overview of the the scale of the universe and how we have arrived at a our present picture:

Doppler Demo    
Binary star Doppler shift            

Kapteyn biographical note

Kapteyn vs Shapley galaxies

Cepheid distance scale a history

History of Observation of the SMC
John Goodricke (1764-1786), Astronomer
Globular Cluster M3

Harlow Shapely 1885-1972

Heber D.Curtis 1872 -1942

Full Sky Astrometric Explorer

VRML plug ins allow you to view and manipulate 3-D images. The following site will test your browser for a compatible plug in. If none is detected then the site will give links to free downloadable plug ins.
VRML Browser test.

This gives you a virtual tour of the galaxy:

Return to BPAA 2002 Home Page