Menu
 

Red Ball GORKUM MAPS, PROVINCIAL AND CIVIC ARMS 1, 2, 3, 4

Gorkum The maps, provincial and civic arms below give some insight into the environs of the PANNEBAKKER families in the Netherlands prior to the movement of some to other locales. Note the walled cities with surrounding moat, draw bridges, triangular parapets, other protective emplacements, windmills, central church, farming areas outside of the city, commerce, etc... Photo at right is De Dalempoort 3, 4 the only remaining towngate building was built in 1597 on the southeast side of the ancient city of Gorcum/Gorkum. The inside walls are slotted and fitted with two rows of wooden beams filled in-between with cow manure and dirt to hold back high river water in winter. This is still necessary each winter.

Each Dutch province had Provincial Arms, normally utilizing the Lion of Holland as a central presence. Within the provinces, each town had Civic Arms appropriate with the town's envisioned image. During the early 1500s the Protestant Reformation spread through the Netherlands and Europe's low countries. Protestants were persecuted by the Catholic Spanish rulers. Philip II of Spain inherited the Low Countries in 1555 and exerted his power to increase the struggle against the Protestants. Led by William I, prince of Orange, the nobles revolted against Philip in 1568. By 1579 most of the northern provinces, where Protestantism was strongest, formed the Union of Utrecht and continued the revolt which had begun to break apart. The north provinces declared their independence from Spanish rule on July 26, 1581. Thus began the Dutch Republic or the Netherlands. Fighting continued until Dutch independence was finally recognized by Spain in 1648.

Gorcum/Gorkum or modern day Gorinchem, Netherlands is the traditional birthplace of Johann PANNEBAKKER (the nth great-grandson of Herr Jan de PANNEBAKKER), who became an immigrant to Flomborn, Germany in the 1650s. There the PANNEBAKKER surname became the Germanic PFANNEBECKER and later became PENNEBAKER and several other variations in the United States. In 1568 in Utrecht, Netherland Herr Jan de PANNEBAKKER, a successful tile maker from Gorcum, was burned at the stake and his wife drowned by the Spaniards for heresy during a time of religious persecution and the start of the Dutch revolt against the harsh Spanish rulers. Their son, Cornelius, witnessing these atrocities supposedly fled the Netherlands to Germany.


Green Ball MAP OF GORCUM, NETHERLANDS - 1652

Gorkum

Gorkum/Gorinchem evolved in the very early middle ages, at the beginning of the 13th century, from a fishing settlement on the river banks of the rivers Merwede and Linge. This is the layout of Gorinchem with the new finished town walls in the year 1600. When town was allied with Prince of Orange in the year 1572, during the 80 years war against Spain, they started to replace the stone walls by earth walls. The stone walls could not withstand the improved guns at that time. The earth walls were shaped like a dike of about 20 feet (6 m) high with a upright front of brick wall, about 10 feet (3 m) high. On the inside these walls were sloping with paths going up and running along on top to get big guns pulled-up by horses. Sint Jan Tower is in center.


Green Ball MODERN AERIAL PICTURE OF GORINCHEM, NETHERLANDS 3

Aerial

Gorinchen has become a small/medium size typical Dutch town of about 30,000 inhabitants. It is situated 25 miles (40 km) east of Rotterdam on the north bank of the river Merwede. The picturesque small river Linge, bisects the town, flowing through the old town into the Merwede. The surrounding country is typical Dutch river landscape with lots of water, bushes, green meadows, dikes and windmills. Gorinchem has a very cozy old town center, surrounded by 17th century dike like town walls. The town center has historic buildings, lots of shops, pubs and restaurants. There is also the old harbor with historic riverboats.This is current shape of Gorkum/Gorinchem. As you can see on the left side, the channel has chopped off a piece of the town walls, but most of the town walls from 1600 are in their original shape. Sint Jan Tower is in center.


Green Ball MODERN GORINCHEM

Gorinchem

De Dalempoort at center-left and typical old Dutch windmill at bottom. Note tiled roofs.


Green Ball SINT JAN TOWER

St. Jin Tower

The Sint Jan Tower in Gorinchem, consisting of brick stone, was built in the period between 1450 and 1517. The tower subsided during the intital building phase and the latter part was built straight resulting in a bent tower rising a total of 202 feet (61.5 metres) above the street level. Two historic large bells date from 1481 and 1625. The carillon Speaker consists of 47 bells. Sint Jan Tower information from Bas't Hoen.


Green Ball PROVINCIAL AND CIVIC ARMS (l-r) - GORCUM, NETHERLANDS

Gorkum Arms


References:
1.  City Maps and Arms from Blaeu's Toonneel der Steden Atlas - 1649/1652.
2.  Additional pertinent Provincial Arms and maps at: Bank Nederlandse Gemeentewapens, Nederlandse Provinciewapens/Dutch Provincial Arms.
3.  Dalempoort gateway and modern aerial photograph of Gorinchem, Netherlands from Bas 't Hoen, Gorinchem, Netherlands.
4.  Gorkum/Gorcum/Gorinchem, Netherlands information, history and photos.


Arrow Up Copyright © Paul E. Pennebaker, 1998
Last modified 30-Oct-1998