João Baptist Martins1
NOTE: This is a translated, using "Go Translator", version of João Baptist Martins paper on Vygotsky. The Portuguese version can be found on his website at: http://members.xoom.com/_XMCM/jbmartins/vygotsky2.htm.
The problem of the pertaining to school evaluation under the theoretical perspective of L.S. Vygotsky is argued and having itself as starting point the proposals pedagogical politics and of the Secretariat of Education of the State of the Paraná.
Words Keys: Pertaining to school evaluation - Partner-description-cultural Theory in Psychology - Vygotsky
We discuss the to scholar evaluation to over the perspective of L.S. pedagogical Vygotsky's theory and starting point the politic and proposals of Secretariat of Education of the State of the Paraná.
Keys Words: Scholastic avaliation - Socio-historical - cultural theory in Psycology - Vygotsky.
The proposal of Resume for the Public School of the State of the Paraná (PARANÁ, 1990), presented for the Secretariat of the Education in the management of the Governor Robert Requião, is fruit of a quarrel that if it initiated in 1988, when of the implantation of the Basic Cycle in the state network of education2. While proposal politician-pedagogical (PARANÁ, 1992), the express resume a concern and a commitment with the improvement of education, in the direction to answer to the social and historical necessities of the Brazilian society.
With the perspective to reconstruct the especificidade of the school, recouping the partner-historical ratio of this institution, or either, " the education exist to propitiate the acquisition of the instruments that make possible the access when elaborated knowing (science), as well as the proper access of the incomes of this to know " (Saviani apud PARANÁ, 1990, p. 16), the educational process offered in the school if inscreve/circunscreve (it has as arrived starting point and of) na/a history of the relations human beings, either that one that if effective between the men, either that one that the man establishes with the environment.
These considerações, in turn, in send for a reflection on some aspects implied in the process teach-learning to them, such as: the relation professor x pupil, the interdisciplinaridade, the interserialidade, etc... However, we consider the question of the pertaining to school evaluation as a central problem in this process, therefore it is through it that the implementation of a proposal will be accomplished pedagogical more joust, more democratic, igualitária.
Of the point of view of a traditional pedagogia (MIZUKAMI, 1986) the evaluation process that if establishes in the schools if seats in the maintenance of the relations of being able that they are structuralized in the social universe of the school, where the pupil is seen as a knowledge depositary (FREIRE, 1974), and the professor, in the measure where he withholds knowing (and consequently, the power), is that one of determines the forms of access to the formal knowledge and the social space where the learning must occur (BOHOSLAVSKY, 1989): the expectation that if structure on the pupil is of that it reproduces what the professor passed to it through test and or tests.
Such pedagogical position comes sufficiently being criticized in last years (FREIRE, 1979; PATTO, 1984; LUCKESI, 1986) and the proposal curricular for the paranaenses schools if line up in the set of these critical ones, affirming the discriminant character and of implicit exclusion in this type of practical avaliativa (PARANÁ, 1993).
In the direction to surpass this practical some proposals have been presented (DAVIS & SPOSITO, 1991; ESTEBAN, 1992; AXE, 1993; PARANÁ, 1993), which points new possibilities with respect to the evaluation process. In a general way these proposals suggest that what must be evaluated is not exclusively the pupil, but the relation that if establishes in the process teach-learning.
The measure where if it considers pupil and professor as historical citizens; the professor as mediating historicamente enters the accumulated knowledge and the pupil; that the social relations - intra and extra pertaining to school - propitiate the construction of a new knowledge; that the knowledge is not static, but dynamic and conditional for the social relations that produce it; the evaluation process assumes new features: salient mainly that the pupil must be evaluated daily, cumulatively and diagnosticamente, having itself as deep cloth of for such evaluation the relations who it establishes - with professors, pupils, at last, with its social reality.
However, for diverse times, to the one in finding them with the professors of the state network of education (in meetings, lectures, seminaries, etc...) we observe that a series of difficulties - in such a way theoreticians as practical - in the operacionalização of this idea of evaluation in its exists practical pedagogical: how to evaluate daily? what it is a cumulative evaluation? as to make the diagnosis of the learning process: they are questions that permeavam and permeiam today until our meeting with the professors of network3.
With the perspective to contribute for the clarification of some questions, specifically those that if they relate to the criteria implied in the pertaining to school evaluation, we will argue in this work such problematic under the theoretical perspective of Russian psychologist L. S. Vygotsky and its collaborators. For in such a way, we will rescue initially some concepts developed for these authors for, after that, arguing its possibilities for the practical one of the evaluation in the teaching activity, having as deep cloth of the current resume for the paranaense public school.
VYGOTSKY (1991a, 1991b), when studying the upper psychological functions that characterize the human being, stops an intense dialogue with some representatives of psychological currents of its time: Freud, Pavlov, Piaget, Lewin, Kohler, Koffka, Buhler, etc.4 As resulted of this dialogue, and under the influence of the workmanship of Marx/Engels, it designate that the origins of the upper forms of the behavior (to remember, to compare, to speak, to think, etc.) they would have to be studied from the social relations that the individuals establish with the social environment where they live.
When approaching the ways for which if interlace the natural aspects - physical maturation, sensorial mechanisms - with the cultural processes in the production of the upper psychological functions, Vygotsky and its collaborators affirm the mediating nature of these functions, as well as the importance of the social life in the development of the same ones.
Taking the process of acquisition of the language as " paradigm " to clarify the human psychological development, Vygotsky affirms that all the upper functions originate from the real relations between the human individuals, and that they appear two times in its lives: interpsicologicamente and intrapsicologicamente.
Since the first days of the development, the actions of the children acquire one meaning proper in a system of social behavior e, being directed the specific objectives, are refracted through the prism of the environment of the child. The contact of the children with the physical and social environment is mediated by other people (generally familiar), that they assist them in its process of insertion in the half human being.
Initially, the infantile behavior is burst for the social environment, this way offers a set of meanings that guide the child; the measure that the child exercises such meanings - through the game, through speaks self-centered, of the learning of the language, etc... - it them internaliza (it learns), what a certain independence in relation to the adults makes possible it, that if characterizes for a certain autoregulação5 of its behavior6. In this process, the child of a side, apprehends the meanings of the concepts that she makes possible to it to communicate with one another one e, of another one, it has the possibility to give a precise meaning for the set of signos/símbolos that the social environment offers to it - it assumes7 of the same ones.
As such process he is circumscribed for the social relations that the child establishes with other human beings and the environment, we can say that its psychological structure is the product of a process of development deeply taken root in the pluggings between individual history and social history. At the same time where it if individualiza - singulariza - it also insert themselves in a more general universe, ampler, that if circumscribes from the cultural history of the men.
For Vygotsky, the internalização of the cultural forms of behavior (or either, learning) involves the reconstruction of the psychological activity and has as base the operations with signs. These last ones, during the development of the child, they are similar to whom occur in the language. Aspects in such a way of speak external or comunicativa, as of it speaks self-centered, they are internalizam, becoming base of it says inward to it, or either, the child leaves to answer impulsively to the way and its responses pass to be mediated by symbols or " constructed symbolic instruments " from social relations8.
OLIVEIRA (1992) calls the attention for the fact not confusing the proposals of Vygotsky with the " sociological determinismo ", in view of that it rescues the capacity of the individual in reelaborar the meanings, the instruments, etc. that the cultural world considers to it, rework that if gives through do/no internalização process.
Such perspective - of the insertion in a symbolic dimension - in the measure that estimates that the child must learn to use some features to insert in a dimension human being strict, takes Vygotsky, to establish a new vision concerning the relations between development and learning. It recoloca this question leaving of a questioning of the current theories at its time that tried to explain such relation:
" the first one is centered in the estimated one of that the processes of development of the child are independent of the learning. The learning is considered as a purely external process that is not involved actively in the development (...) the second great theoretical position is the one that claims that learning is development... The development is seen as the domain of the conditional consequences... the learning process is full and inseparavelmente mixed with the development process (...) the third theoretical position on the relation between the learning and development it tries to surpass the extremities of the others two... [ Such perspective claims that ] development if bases on two processes inherently different, even so related... of side maturation, that depends directly on the nervous system, another one the learning, that is in same itself, also a development process." (VYGOTSKY, 1991, p. 89/91)
Vygotsky, in turn, approaches this relation from two perspectives: the 1) general relation between learning x development and the 2) specific aspects of these relations when the child reaches the pertaining to school age. In its Vygotsky analysis the fact takes as starting point of that the learning of the children starts before them entering in the school, or either, any situation of learning with which the child if confrots in the school always has a previous history.
" It is continued affirming that the learning such as it occurs in the preschool age differs nitidamente from the pertaining to school learning, which is come back to the assimilation of beddings of the scientific knowledge. However, no longer period of its first questions, when the child assimilates object names in its environment, it is learning. (...) In fact, learning and development are interrelated since the first day of life of the child." (VYGOTSKY, 1991a, p. 95 - assinalamentos ours)
Without a doubt it has difference between the pertaining to school learning and the learning that occurs from the relations that if establish outside of this social context. Difference that consists of not the systematization of as. But, the systematization is not the only factor. In function of its especificidade, the pertaining to school learning produces something new in the development of the child: the zone of proximal development (ZDP) (to see Figure 1)9.
Figure 1 - Zone of Proximal Development
This concept is basic for the agreement of the relations between development and learning. The zone of proximal development describes in the distance enters the level of real development (NDR) of the child - constituted of functions of the child already completed by the child in its development - and the level of potential development (NDP) - determined through the solution of problems under the prompt of an adult or in contribution with capable friends. The " zone of proximal development ", therefore, in allows them to explore those functions that had still not been developed, but that they are in " embryonic state ".
Thus, the operacionalização of this concept in the analysis of the process of development of the child to provide psychologists and educators with an instrument through which if can understand the course internal of its development. Using it, we can not only give to account of the cycles and processes that already had been completed - perspective retrospect; as also of those processes that are in formation state, or either, that they are starting if to develop - perspective prospectiva. The operacionalização of this concept, therefore, in allows them to rescue the development of the child in its historical dimension, while a process10.
On the other hand, this concept also in allows them to delineate the immediate future of the child and its dynamic state of development, therefore what it is zone of proximal development today, it will be the level of real development tomorrow: what the child will be able to make today with assistance, will be able to make tomorrow alone.
To leave of this concept, the relation between development and learning take another dimension: the learning starts to be essential to the human development.
"... the learning guided for the development levels that already had been reached is inefficacious of the point of view of the global development of the child. It not if dirige for a new period of training of the process, but, on the contrary of this, go the tow of this process. Thus, the notion of zone of proximal development enables us to consider it a new formula, of that `bom learning ' is that one that if advances to the development." (VYGOTSKY, 1991a, p.100/101)
Thus, taking as starting point the previous project (Figure 1), when the child learns, it " if adentra " in the circumscribed space for the level of real development and the level of potential development - bringing up to date the zone of proximal development, consolidating the development. Consequently, the level of potential development acquires a new parameter, consisting then a new zone of proximal development (To see Figure 2).
Figure 2 - Zone of Proximal Development and the Learning
Such proposals in take them to reaffirm the importance of the professor for the process of development of pupils11, therefore it directly is related with the forms that the professor approaches the contents of its disciplines, as well as with the chances that it offers so that the pupils of them if appropriate.
Such perspective in suggests them that the process of learning of the pertaining to school contents is not depleted in a determined time, but that it consolidates itself and if extends the measure that is offered to the pupils specific situations to exercise the learned contents. When oportunizar situations where this is possible, the professor makes possible the pupils to give new meanings for the concepts learned during the learning process.
He fits to still point that the learning of the pertaining to school contents exclusively does not give from the relation professor x pupil who if establishes inside of the classroom, but from the social exercise of the same ones, in the contact with the reality where the professors and pupils are involved, or either, it is the social exercise of the knowledge that will allow the pupils to give a precise meaning for the knowledge offered for the school.
As we designate previously, the concept of zone of proximal development in makes possible them in such a way to approach the process of learning and development of the children in a historical perspective - retrospectively, as prospectivamente. In this direction, when operacionalizarmos such concept in pedagogical practical ours, we will be establishing a diagnosis and a prognostic of the children, what in it will make possible them to plan educational strategies so that they obtain to surpass its level of real development.
As we point previously, the proposal of the SEED-pr for the state network of education intends will rescue the historical especificidade of the school having as starting point the question of the clarifying knowledge, either of the social relations as of the means of production. In that it refers to to the resume, such perspective is organized as a set of nuclear activities of the school that, adequately dosed and sequenciado, it will provide to the pupil to assume itself more of a articulated organized knowledge and more to the end of the escolarização.
It is still considered, in this proposal, that the social agents gifts in the process teach-learning - professors x pupils, mainly - are citizens of the knowledge and that both are inserted in one same practical social - of the construction and reconstruction of the knowledge. In this direction, the socialization of systemize knowing becomes the norteador element of the activities of the school and the educators. The knowledge (either of the professor, either of the pupil; systemize or) if it does not insert in a pedagogical process from which if it opens the possibility of its reconstruction.
But as if it gives the process of evaluation under such perspective? what we must evaluate?
Of the psychological point of view, we have clarity of that the escolarização process promotes cognitivo development in the children, and is this process of development that will be object of our quarrel.
" formal Education [ ] propitiates new ' tools for the intellect '... but without the use contexts, these tools show `enferrujadas ' and fall in the disuse " (IT GLUE, 1990, p. 106). To understand the formal educational process under this point of view implies to lead in consideration, in the evaluation process, the ways as the alunos/professores if they appropriate (cognitiva and socially) of the pertaining to school contents and as they operacionalizam them in the interpretation of the social reality where they are inserted (therefore, in case that this does not come to occur, they will become " rusted ").
In the measure that the process of pertaining to school learning promotes psychological changes to the long one of the life of the pupils (and why not of the professors) e such changes if reflect in some dimensions, it fits here to argue as they process themselves and as we can evaluate them.
VYGOTSKY (1991a), when arguing the relations in learning and development affirms that the pertaining to school learning creates proximais zones of development. It also affirms that the learned scientific concepts in the school have a history and that the learning of the scientific concepts the concepts must have as starting point that the children had learned in its social life - the daily concepts (VYGOTSKY, 1991b). Thus, the measure that the child if appropriates of the scientific concepts these if becomes daily and the daily ones in scientific. We understand that such history if consolidates the measure that the pupils have the chance to exercise such concepts, operacionalizando them in the interpretation of the reality where they are inserted - giving a social direction to them12.
Having as perspective the argued ideas of Vygotsky previously, it is us clearly that, from the organization of the contents, the contact with the first concepts of disciplines (in the Daily pay-school), creates a zone of proximal development that will be consolidated the measure that the pupil will be if appropriating of the too much contents in posterior situations.
It fits to point out, however, that the process of appropriation of concepts is not given of the " day for the night ". We have the printing of that the professors when evaluating its pupils do not lead in consideration that the appropriation of the same ones can, to the times, slow being. In this direction, Vygotsky in the alert one
" the path of the first meeting of the child with a new concept until when the word and the concept they are produced by the proper child is a mental process internal complex. This process includes the development gradual of the understanding of the new word, a process that it only initiates with a vacant representation. It also includes the use initial of the word. The domain of the word is only the final link in this process. We try to express that... when the child learns initially the meaning of a word, the development process if have not completed, but only initiate ourselves." (VYGOTSKY, 1987, p. 172)
Not rare we find pupils who, when expressing its understanding of definitive concepts, demonstrate a certain imprecisão when they operacionalizam them in its understanding of the reality: however if they relate to the phenomena using concepts learned from its daily one, however use concepts learned in the school. Also it is very frequent to observe pupils, ahead of an exercise or proves, to entabularem one " speaks self-centered " (or same using the fingers when in a test of mathematics). We understand such situations as moments where the pupils are if appropriating - giving precise meaning - for the contents that are learning in the pertaining to school context. It is with this direction that we affirm the importance of the chances of exercise of the concepts - they provide the internalização of the same ones - of the interpsicológico plan for the intrapsicológico plan.
Such perspectives in suggest one another mode to them to olharmos/avaliarmos the learning of the pupils. They, when entering in the school, bring a series of concepts learned in its social relations. In the school, they have contact with concepts that are not related with its immediate experiences with the reality - they are more abstract, distant of its daily one. This meeting - between daily concepts and scientific concepts - creates a contradiction13, contradiction that if surpasses in the measure that the pupil exercises the concepts in guideline. To surpass such situation, however, does not mean to abandon the scientific concept for the daily one (and vice versa), for the the opposite, the pupil will surpass such situation creating a new concept, concept this that if constructs from a synthesis enters both the types of concepts (to see Figure 3).
When exercising these new concepts, with the aid of the professor or the somebody oldest thing, the pupil will have the chance to evaluate if the same ones allow an interpretation it of this reality; such situation makes possible the emergency of new contradiction and, conseqüentemtente, the creation of a new concept (new synthesis), and thus, the process if it develops, moved for the construção/superação of new teses, antitheses and syntheses. In this direction, such process makes possible, gradually, to the pupils to transform the daily concepts into scientific, and these in daily, in such mode that they will pass, to the long one of the time, to interpret the reality to leave of these last ones (scientific concepts).
In Figure 3 we try to schematize14 such process, establishing a relation with the concept of zone of proximal development considered by Vygotsky. The child when entering in the school interprets its reality from the daily concepts (c.cot) what she corresponds to certain of real development (NDR) - a such level in turn projects a Zone of Proximal Development, in the measure that the child has conditions to carry through tasks with the aid of the somebody capable thing (adulto/criança) - its level of potential development (NDP).
When these daily concepts if collate with the scientific concepts, create a contradiction (ct), to which will be surpassed when the child to make a synthesis (Sint 1), creating a new set of concepts. Such synthesis (Sint1), in turn, represents the consolidation (NDR1) of aspects of the Zone of Proximal Development previously delineated (NDR - NDP), creating a new Zone of Proximal Development (NDR - NDP1).
The exercise of this new concept (Sint1), will make possible the emergency of new contradiction (ct), which will be surpassed by the creation of a new concept (Sint2), what it previously consolidates aspects of the Zone of Proximal Development delineated for (NDR - NDP1), express in NDR2. Such consolidation will create new Zone of Proximal Development, now circumscribed for NDR - NDP2.
Such perspective in allows them step by step to analyze the process of learning of the pupil in a historical dimension, or either, in discloses to the cognitivas changes of the pupil throughout its contact with pertaining to school contents (perspectivedaily). Such changes to them if they express for the constant reorganization of the concepts in one given conceptual structure, where they coexist as many daily concepts as scientific (perspective cumulative). Valley to remember, however, that such process is not uniform, it it occurs in advances and backtrackings, projecting the possibilities of the pupil for future (perspective diagnóstica/prognóstica)15.
Such analysis also must contemplate the development of the psychological functions that are implied in the activities proposals for the professor, therefore will be through these activities who the child will develop its thought, the language, the voluntary attention, the memory, will establish relations, correlations, etc...
The process teach-learning, however, does not lock in in the relation professor x pupil. ROCKWELL (1985), analyzing the appropriation of the writing in classrooms of alfabetização in designates them that the process of conceptual appropriation if gives, mainly, in the relations extra classroom, in the relations that the pupils establish in the most varied relationary contexts.
In this direction, the evaluation of the learning must contemplate such moments: moments where the child in such a way exercises the concepts learned in the pertaining to school context as extra pertaining to school; moments where it has the chance to interpret the action of the adults, moments where it has the possibility to express the directions that she attributed for the concepts, modifying them from the relations that establish.
One another form of analysis of the process of learning of concepts mentions the changes that if establish in the relation between thought and language. VYGOTSKY (1991b) in designates that the measure to them that we go internalizando the concepts, our thought more goes being shortened, what if explicita for the density of the concepts. That is, we attribute to the concepts - when them we exercise together the reality - some directions, felt that the social contexts are rescued in agreement where we are inserted, (for example, " wood of we plough ", in definitive situation we can mean the carriage that brings the northeasterns for the south of the country; in another one it can mean a torture instrument, still in another one, can be mentioned to the northeasterns).
The argued ideas above have as perspective to point out the process teach-learning - as well as the evaluation of exactly - under a partner-description-cultural perspective, " whose objective is to explain the relations between the cultural actions human beings and situations, institucional and historical in which such actions occur " (WERTSCH, RIVER & ALVAREZ, 1995, p. 11); or either, such process must be boarded from cultural histories (of the institution school, the people, etc...) that they participate of the process teach-learning, as well as the directions that are attributed to it - what they structuralize it of this or of that form.
About this direction, to think process of evaluation pertaining to school (inside of the social context where it draws itself), it implies in recognizing that the meanings are several attributed it, and that its unfoldings inside of the schools expressam/refletem conceptions of man, world, society, social organization, etc... that they subsidize the organization of the resume, of the times, pertaining to school rhythms16.
The previous quarrels in possbilitam them to question the current segmentation for series that characterizes the school of 1ª 8ª series, therefore they in suggest them that the learning must be conceived while one " continuum " that it is constructed and if reconstructs from practical the pedagogical ones who structuralize themselves there. Obviously that such perspective must be deepened the scope of the quarrels that if carry through on the restruturação of our public school (we remember that currently experiences exist that have as perspective to surpass the seriação degree enters the initial series of 1º - 1ª 4ª series).
As in they suggest documents to them of the SEED-pr (1990, 1992 and 1993, especially that one that deals with the evaluation process), what it is in game in the avaliativo process is the overcoming of ethics of the exclusion for the development of ethical relations that they are more democratic, igualitárias and more jousts. The proposal of evaluation above argued has as perspective to subsidize one practical one that it assures these last principles, in the measure that inside points out the individuals (professors x pupils) in the involved ones of a historical process (individual/social); it considers the knowledge as something that if constrói/reconstrói as the objective relations that if establish between the individuals (and between these and the environment).
The considered process of evaluation however implies in the recognition of that the to be evaluated object is not nor what pupil learned, nor what the professor taught, but the production of knowledge that this relation propitiated, as well as its possible unfoldings (the potentialities) future, while possibilities in the desvelamento of the reality of the actors who where they are involved in this process.
In view of that the pedagogical relation is an arbitrary activity, valley to stand out the importance of the paper of the professor in the learning of its pupils: either in the organization of the resume, either in the presentation of the content; we understand that through perspective the proposal, the professor will be able to rescue itself while subject description, in the measure that has the possibility to identify with the product of its work - the changes that the relation professor x pupil x knowledge produces, as much in the life of the pupils, as in its proper lives.
The evaluation, in this context, has the intention to inform on as the involved individuals in the process teach-learning are if appropriating of the pertaining to school contents in guideline, as well as the changes that occur in its conceptual structures.
The partner-description-cultural approach intended here, in turn, needs to be extended and to be developed, mainly in our way, in view of the many interpretations that are being developed of the workmanships of one of its founders - Vygotsky (Martins, 1996). In this direction, it fits us task to elaborate research, as much of how much empirical the theoretical point of view, so that let us can, of a side, terms more clarity of the estimated ones that they subsidize it, and of another one, to surpass the gaps and the interrogations that still persist in its operacionalização for the understanding of the human psychological phenomena.
1- Prof. Department of Social and Institucional Psychology of the State University of Native of London. Master in Social Anthropology for the UFSC and Doutorando in Education for the UFSCar.
2 - For a critical analysis of this process to see WALNUT, 1993.
3 - MAINARDES (1995), analyzing the process of implantation of the Basic Cycle of Alfabetização in a paranaense city, points some difficulties in the set of professors who work in the schools of 1ª 4ª series.
4 - Vygotsky was born in 1896 and died in 1934. When it arrived at Moscow, in 1925, it and its collaborators had undertaken a deep study on Russian psychology and the developed one in the Ocidente from which had established the bases for the development of a psychology that if apóia in princí pious of the dialético materialism. More details to see LURIA, 1988; RIVIERE, 1988.
5 - On the question of the autoregulação, to see DIAZ, NEAL & AMAYA-williams, 1990.
6 - She is to leave of these relations that the child starts to develop its conscience that if characterizes for the " a ability in evaluating the sensórias information, in answering they with thoughts and critical actions and in holding back strokes of form memory that strokes or last actions can be used in the future." (LURIA, 198å, p.195/196).
7 - On the characterization of this concept, under a partner-cultural percpectiva, to see ROGOFF, 1995. }
8 - Vygotsky was felt inspired in the quarrel of Engels on the evolution human being to develop such ideas, affirming that: " the invention and the use of signs as half assistant to solve data psychological problem (to remember, to compare things, to tell, to choose, etc.) she is analogous to the invention and the use of instruments as Engels considers, only that this process encloses the psychological field. The sign acts as an instrument of the psicoló3gica activity in analogous way to the paper of an instrument in the work." (VYGOTSKY, 1991a:59/60).
9 - Vygotsky goes to argue this concept from the relations that are established between the child and the school, however considers that proximais zones of development if establish since the beginning of the life of the child and that those that if establish in the pertaining to school years they are qualitatively upper, therefore they involve more complex psychological operations.
10 - VYGOTSKY(1991a, especially CAP 5), to arguing the methodology to analyze the psychological processes of the man, designates that they must be boarded while phenomena that if develop historicamente, or either, processes that imply in changes to the long one of the life of the citizens.
11 - OLIVEIRA (1993, p. 57) in remembers that the Russian term to them used by relative Vygotsky to the process to learn " obuchinie " and that its means something as " process teach-learning ", including always that one that learns, that one that teach and the relção between the people.
12 - McLANE (1990) develops such perspective how much the learning of the writing.
13 - We can say that such situation creates zone of proximal development, in the measure where it propitiates some possibilities for the pupils.
14 - The character of this project is strict didactic therefore considers that the process is much more complex that the project suggests.
15 - It fits to designate that we are not in relating to a idealized child, but to a child who if constructs from the social contexts where she is involved, either of the cognitivo point of view, as affective and social (PENUEL & WERTSCH, 1995).
16 - For an analysis on the estruturação of the resume and its unfoldings politicians in pertaining to school the extra context and intra, to see IT HISSES, 1995. } }
Bohoslavsky, Rodolfo. The psicopatologia of the bond professor x pupil: the professor as socializador agent. In: Patto, Helena Maria Souza (org). Introduction pertaining to school psychology. 2 ed. Are Paulo:T.A.Queiroz, 1989, p. 320-341.
It glue, Michael. Formal Cognitive development and schooling: the evidence from cross-cultural research. In: Mool, Luis C. (ed). Vygotsky and education: sociohistorical instructional implications of psychology. New York:Cambridge University Press, 1990, p. 89-110.
DAVIS, C. & ESPOSITO, Y. L. the paper and the function of the error in the pertaining to school evaluation. Brazilian magazine of Pedagogical Studies. Brasilia, v. 72, n. 171, p. 196-206, maio/ago 1991.
Diaz, Rafael M.; Neal, Cynthia J. & Amaya-williams, Marina. Social The origins of self regulation. In: Mool, Luis C. (ed). Vygotsky and education: sociohistorical instructional implications of psychology. New York:Cambridge University Press, 1990, p. 127-134.
Esteban, Maria Teresa. Rethink the failure pertaining to school. Notebooks You yield 28. Campinas:Papirus, 1992, p. 75-86.
Freire, Pablo. Pedagogia of the oppressed one. 7 ed. River of Janeiro:Paz and Terra, 1979.
Freire, Pablo. An education for freedom. 4 ed. Porto:Dinalivros, 1974.
LUCKESI, Cipriano C. educational Avaliação: for beyond the authoritarianism. Magazine of the National Association of Education. v. 10, p. 47-51, 1986.
LURIA, R. the conscientious activity of the man and its partner-historical raízes. In: Luria, R. Course of general psychology. River of Brazilian Janeiro:Civilização, 1979, vol. 1, CAP 3.
Luria, R. Vigotskii. In Vigotskii, L. S. et al. Language, development and learning. 2 ed. Are Paulo:Ícone/EDUSP, 1988, p. 21-37.
LURIA, R. the human brain and the conscientious activity In: Vigotskii, L. S. et al. Language, development and learning. 2 ed., Are Paulo:Ícone/EDUSP, 198å, p. 191-224.
McLANE, Joan B. Writting the social a process. In: Mool, Luis C. (ed). Vygotsky and education: sociohistorical instructional implications of psychology. New York:Cambridge University Press, 1990, p.304-318.
AXE, V. L. S. Dificuldades of learning and the practical interpersonal relation in the pedagogical one. Paidéia. Ribeirão Preto, FFCLRP/usp, v.3, p. 16-25, ago/jan 1993.
Mainardes, Jefferson. Basic cycle of alfabetização: of the intention to the reality (Evaluation of the CBA in the City of Thick Tip). UNICAMP. College of Education. Dissertação de Mestrado, 1995.
Martins, João Baptist "Dissecando " Vygotsky: in fetching of a safe interpretation. Native of London. Presented design of Research the Coordenadoria de Pesquisa and Pós-Graduação of the State University of Native of London, 1996.
MIZUKAMI, M. G. N. Education: the boardings of the process. They are Paulo:EPU, 1986.
Mool, Luis C. Introduction. In: Mool, Luis C. (ed). Vygotsky and education: sociohistorical instructional implications of psychology. New York:Cambridge University Press, 1990, p. 1-27.
Walnut, Francis Mary G. Educational politics of the Paraná: a instituicional version of the proposal pedagogical of the Eighties. São Paulo. PUC/sp (Dissertação de Mestrado), 1993.
OLIVEIRA, Marta Khol of. Vygotsky: learning and development a historical process. They are Paulo:Scipione, 1993.
OLIVEIRA, Marta Khol of. Vygotsky: some mistakes in the interpretation of its thought. Notebooks of Research. São Paulo, v. 76, p. 67-69, May 1992.
PARANÁ. SECRETARIAT OF THE EDUCATION. Pertaining to school evaluation: an ethical commitment. Curitiba:SEED, 1993.
PARANÁ. SECRETARIAT OF THE EDUCATION. Constructing to the school citizen. Curitiba:SEED, 1992.
PARANÁ. SECRETARIAT OF THE EDUCATION. Basic resume for the public school of the Paraná. Curitiba:SEED, 1990.
Patto, Helena Maria Souza. Psychology and ideology: a critical introduction pertaining to school psychology. They are Paulo:T.A.Queiroz, 1984.
PENUEL, William R. & WERTSCH, James V. Vygotsky and identity formation: sociocultural approach. Educational Psychology. v. 30, n. 2, p. 83-92, 1995.
Riviere, Angel. La Psychology of Vigotsky. Madri:Visor, 1988.
Rockwell, Elcie. The pertaining to school uses of the written language. Notebooks of Research. São Paulo, n. 52, p. 85-95, fev. 1985.
Rogoff, Barbara. Sociocultural Observing activity on three you glide: participatory appropriation, guided participation, an apprentieceship. In: Wertsch, James V.; River, Pablo del & Alvarez, Amelia (eds). Sociocultural studies of mind. New York:Cambridge University Press, 1995, p. 139-164.
IT HISSES, Tomaz Tadeu of. Resume and social identity: contested territories. In: It hisses, Tomaz Tadeu of (org). Foreigners in the classroom: an introduction to the cultural studies in the education. Petrópolis:Vozes, 1995, 190-207.
VYGOTSKY, L. S. The social Formation of the mind. 4 ed. Are Paulo:Martins Sources, 1991a.
VYGOTSKY, L. S. Thought and language. 3 ed. They are Paulo:Martins Sources, 1991b.
VYGOTSKY, L. S. Thinking and speech. In: Vygotsky, L. S. Collected works of L. S. Vygotsky. New York:Plenum, vol. 1, 1987, p. 37-285.
Wertsch, James V.; RIVER, Pablo del & ALVAREZ, Amelia. Sociocultural studies: history, action, and mediation. In: Wertsch, James V.; River, Pablo del & Alvarez, Amelia (eds). Sociocultural studies of mind. New York:Cambridge University Press, 1995, p. 11-34.