The Colonial Story

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Parsels Line  

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By the early 1600’s the Dutch were entrenched as a world maritime empire.  Other countries began to vie for control of the seas, and eventually Amsterdam became engaged in a war with Spain for control of this empire. The main focus of their campaign  was to maintain their supply of Baltic Trade goods and tropical products, so in 1609 when Henry Hudson discovered the Hudson River, colonization was not a high priority, even though the Dutch claimed rights to all land between the Delaware and Connecticut Rivers. 

The English were having troubles of their own.  The religious unrest that started when Henry VIII established the Church of England, continued to give birth to new groups of religious dissidents.  Separatists believed that the Church did not go far enough when it removed much of the Catholic hierarchy and ceremony from its religion.    The monarchy reacted by persecuting any dissident. Separatists eventually sought refuge in the Netherlands, long know for it's religious tolerance.   But  after several years of residing in Amsterdam, where their children began to acquire passive Dutch ways, the Pilgrims returned to England, still searching for a place to practice their religion unchallenged.

American exploration continued. One of the first Dutch settlements in America was a trading post named Fort Nassau, which was constructed on the upper Hudson at Castle Island, but in the spring of 1617 flood destroyed the post, and it had to be rebuilt.  This time the site was moved to the west bank of the Hudson River, and was named Fort Orange.   This became the nucleus for the present day city of Albany.  

In 1620 the Pilgrims finally received permission to emmigrate to America, and Plymouth is settled. In this era, there was little distinction between religious and civil law.    The Pilgrims maintained a closed settlement.  You had to apply for persission to settle, and only if the Church approved of you and your views, could you do so.  The religioius freedom that they strived for in England, they did not grant to others in America. If the Pilgrims felt that you were not adhering to their teachings, or were a threat to their church, you were tried in court, fined and punished. Sometimes families were banished from the colony.  

In 1621 the West India Co. was given monopoly of Dutch trade over the world. It took them 8 more years to build enough capital to begin colonization, not just in North America, but in Africa, Ceylon, East Indies, Formosa and Brazil.  

In the spring of 1624 Nieu Nederlandt was formed, with 30 families arriving in the new world.  Most were from the Netherlands, but some were Huguenots from France and Walloons from Spanish Netherlands. (Again, religious dissidents looking for a place to practice their beliefs without government interference)  Most of these families located at (1.) Fort Orange (Albany), but some went to (2.) Governors’s Island (at the tip of Manhattan Island) and a few settled on the southern end of the Delaware River.  They built a new (3.) Fort Nassau on the Delaware River near the present site of Gloucester, N.J.  

In 1625 the ship "Orangeboom" arrived, bringing Governor William Verhulst, and he choose to settle with the few settlers already located on the Delaware River.  When the Mackreel brought 42 additional families, it included a surveyor/engineer Cryn Fredericksz, who had orders to establish a fort at the mouth of one of the two rivers.  He choose Manhattan Island for the construction of "Fort Amsterdam" and the settlement that grew around this fort was named New Amsterdam.   When the fort was completed, the governor moved the Delaware colonists to Manhattan Island.  He also had the colonists at Fort Orange relocated to New Amsterdam, leaving only 16 men behind to maintain the Fort.  

In 1626 Peter Minuit was appointed governor to succeed Verhulst, and the first thing he did was to purchase Manhattan Island from the Indians, to legalize their settlement.  

1629-1630  Massachusetts Bay Colony founded 

In 1629 steps were taken to increase emigration to New Netherland, with emphasis on ag, not furs.  A patroon system was implemented. Each patroon was given a tract of land with 16 miles of waterway, and extending as far into country as situation and occupiers would permit.  The patroon had to be a major stockholder in West India Co when it was founded, and had to settle his property within 4 years with 50 colonists over age 15, Colonists would pay rent and receive a share of profits. The Patroon had rights over settlers regarding fishing, hunting,  milling and justice. 
6 Patroonships were registered, but only 3 were settled: 
(4) Swanendael "Valley of Swans", located on the  west bank of Delaware Bay near Lewes, Delaware  
On July 31, 1631 the settlement sent a report back that cows had calved, crops were in, but just a short time later the settlers were massacred, buildings and palisades destroyed  
(5) Pavonia was located on the west bank of lower Hudson River, just across from New Amsterdam, including Staton Island.   By 1635 it had failed also. 
(6) Rensselaerswyck  was the only successful Patroon.  It was located in the vicinity of Fort Orange. 

1635 July 2,  the ship ‘Defence’ arrives in the new world, with Adam Mott,  age 39, a taylor from Essex County England, his wife Sara age 31, and children Jo 14, Adam 12, Jonathan 9, Elizabeth 6 and Mary 4.  He settled in New Amsterdam. 

1635 - William Wilcoxson to America (settled in Concord and Stratford, CT)

1635 - Thomas Gunn, Dorchester, freeman

In 1636 several colonists, including then Gov. Von Twiller, purchase land in the SW corner of Long Island, and their settlement became the nucleus for New Amersfoort, which was renamed the Flatlands when English rule took over the Dutch Settlements in 1664. 
1636 - Roger Williams expelled from Massachusetts.  He founds Rhode Island as a haven for religious dissidents. 

1637 - New Sweden Company formed, to establish settlements in the new world. Half of the capital of this company was Dutch, with many Hollanders involved in the formation of this company.  They selected the Delaware Valley as the site for a colony, even though that was territory claimed by the Dutch.  More Dutch than Swedes initially came to settle New Sweden in March of 1638.  One of the settlers was Pieter Minuit, former governor of New Netherlands.  They located on the right bank of the Delaware River (present site of Wilmington, Delaware) and founded (7) Fort Christina. 

1638 - William Thorne made a freeman of Lynn, Mass on 2 May.  Had 40 acres there.

In 1639 50 Dutch colonists from Utrecht settle under Swedish auspices a few miles from Fort Christina. 

1639 - Hannah Rice born at Concord, CT

1640 - Samuel Wilcoxson born (at Concord?)

1640 - Thomas Gunn is listed as a resident of Windsor, CT

1641 - June 29  William Thorne served on a Salem, MA jury. Shortly thereafter he was convicted of giving assistance to escaped prisoners and was fined f 6 2/3 for "concealing, hiding & supplying." 

1641-42  Dutch members of New Sweden were bought out, in a reorganization to gain greater control of the New Sweden  by the Swedish Crown. 
(Dutch garrison at Fort Nassau (just across the river from Fort Christina) had only 20 men, and the Dutch felt no need for reinforcements because of the Swedish presence. 

1642/3 William Thorne removed to Long Island;  he left Lynn, MA,  along with Lady Deborah Moody and many others, for they were charged with heresy in denying the right of the church to baptise infants; in the records of Court Essex county, Mass  he and others as declared in 1642/3 undoubtedly to escape persecution for their alleged offense, to have "gone to Long Island".

1643 - Pilgrims petition for settlement in Dutch areas, granted.  Hempstead founded. Attempted settlement at Gravesend thwarted by intense Indian conflicts and repeated raids, causing the settlers to flee to the Flatlands. 
1644 - 200 soldiers and refugees arrive from Brazil, after unsuccessfully attempting to establish settlement there. 
1645 - Flushing and Gravesend founded by Pilgrims, including William Thorne and Lady Deborah Moody.  Gravesend has the distinction of being the only settlement where the original patentees were headed by a woman. 

1645 - William and Susannah Thorne are residing in Flushing. William was on of the 18 patentees who applied for the founding of Flushing, and was granted land by Governor Kieft on 19 Oct. 

1646 - William Thorne was granted a plantation in Gravesend. 
1646 - Adam Mott was granted land at Green Point, Long Island  
1647 - Adam Mott marries Jane Hulet on 28 July, 
1648 - William Thorne appointed a magistrate for Flushing, on 27 April.

1648 - the bungling William Kieft was replaced as governor of New Netherlands, by Peter Stuyvesant.  He immediately ordered the construction of Fort Beversreede (now Philadelphia). 
1650 - New plan for increasing population by West India Co.  -  transport 400 childrren from poorhouses and orphanages. 
1651 - Establishment of Midwout (later named Flatbush) 
1651 - 120 soldiers marched to Fort Nassau, joined by a fleet of 11 ships 
 Fort Casimir (now New Castle) Stuyvesant encouraged the Dutch from Manhattan to move there  
1652 - Rensselaerwyck settlers expand out to form Esopus 

1652 - William Wilcoxson dies at Stratford, CT

1653 - Swedes, spurred by Dutch measures, send reinforcements to Delaware 
1654 - Announce that 50 children from almhouses being sent to new world 
1655 - 17 orphans sent 
1655 - Rustdorp (Jamaica) founded 
1655 - Swedes capture Fort Casimir, naturalizing the Dutch citizens.  Stuyvesant with 7 ships and 700 men, recapture Fort Casimer and force the surrender of Fort Christina.  This brings about the complete capitulation of New Sweden, and adds all those colonists to the Dutch ranks. 
1655 - City of Amsterdam citizens, offer to buy land on west bank of lower Delaware river and develop a colony.  New Amstel was formed. 

1655 - Theophilus Elsworth, boat builder, was listed as a freeholder in NY

1656 - Middleburg (Newton) founded 
1657 - 113 settlers arrive in new world, landing just south of Ft. Casimir.  By 1658 there are 600 colonists at New Amstel. (some of the colonists were Waldensian Protestant refugees driven out of Piedmont Plain in western Alps by Catholic Duke of Savoy, and had fled to the Netherlands. 
1657 - New Amstel - murmuring and complaining about short rations 
1657 - New Utrecht established 

1657 - William Thorne signed a remonstrance at Flushing in favor of Friends (this was an open defiance of a law just passed by Peter Stuyvesant, that prohibited the colonists from receiving or entertaining anyone of the heretical and abominable sect called Quakers.   The result was that the sheriff and others of Flushing, who signed the Remonstrance, were immediately arrested by Stuyvesant.

1657 - William Thorne was one of the proprietors of Jamaica 

1658 - New Haarlem founded; self-governing. New Netherland promised a garrison of 12-15 soldiers when needed, and ½ cost of maintaining a minister when 20 families were settled there, as well as a good road and ferry service. 

1659 - Deborah Gunn married Timothy Thrall, Windsor, CT

1659 - Another group of orphans sent to new world 
1659-1662 -  Quakers hanged in Massachusetts, persecuted in Virginia, the victims of the prevailing belief in enforced religious uniformity.
1660 - Mary Dyer, hanged on the Commons, in Boston MA for being an anti-Puritan troublemaker, preaching her beliefs as a Quaker 
1660 - Boswyck (later Bushwick) established 
1660 - Esopus so populated, it obtains it’s own minister 
1660 - New Amstel is near ruin.  Half of the colonists were women and children, and the 3 subsequent ships of colonists resulted in  "scarcely three good farmers were to be found among the whole lot".  Heavy rains in 1658 and a poor harvest, as well as disease, and the shortage of skilled laborers, brought about the downfall.  100 deaths were recorded in one year.  Many of the colonists departed for the Dutch settlements on the Hudson and Long Island, some for adjacent Virginia and Maryland. 
1661 - Rensselaerwyck settlers at Esopus granted a municipal charter, and change name to Wiltwyck 
1661 - Settlers from around Fort Orange (Albany) get permission from Stuyvasant to purchase nearby land for a new settlement.  Great Mohawk Flat was 15 miles NW of Fort Orange, an area that appealed to farmers  (future Schenectady) 

1662 - William Thorne Jr. marries Winifred Linington of Hempstead, LI 

1662 - ‘In De Puremrlander Kerch’ ship docks with Jan Boeckhout, wife and 5 children; they settled in Haarlem 

1664 - New Netherland fell to English rule. 
1664 - Wiltwyck renamed Kingston, under English rule 

1665 - Adam Mott was commissioned Lieut. Of the town militia by Gov. Richard Nicholls on April 22 

1665 - John Concklin settled in Rye  from Flushing, Long Island 
1667 - Jan Boeckhout, "herder of cattle" had 80 head of cattle to tend.

1673-74  Retaking of New York by Dutch lasts 6 months.  2 shiploads of people migrate to South Carolina, and others cross the bay to New Jersey 

1674 - Joseph Wilcoxson born in Simsbury, CT
1675 - Mattys Janszen Boeckhour marries Lysbeth Elsworth on 9 June. 
1676 - John Concklin moves to Eastchester, Westchester Co. NY 
1678 - Engeltje Boeckhout born Mar 11, to Lysbeth and Mattys Boeckhout
1678 -  Mrs Thomas Gunn dies, Westfield, CT
1681 - Thomas Gunn dies, Westfield, CT

1681 -  William Penn receives charter for Pennsylvania 

1683 - Dirck Storm, clerk of Flatbush until 1683 
1683 - Winifred Thorne, disposes of meadow in Hempstead given to her by her father, Henry Linington.
1685 - William Thorne was a freeholder of Hempstead, taxed for 150 acres of land. 
1695 - Deborah Thrall dies  (Windsor, CT?)
1695 - Dirck Storm removed to Tarrytown 
1695 - Deliverance Concklin married Engeltje Boeckhout on Oct 2 
1696 - Dirck Storm was tax collector for Westchester county 
1697 - Timothy Thrall dies (Windsor, CT?)
1697 - Deliverance & Engeltje Concklin and daughter move to Phillipsburg. 
1700 - John Concklin born to Deliverance and Engeltje
1703 - Joseph Wilcoxson married Abigail Thrall
1712/13 Samuel Wilcoxson dies at Simsbury, CT
1724 - John Concklin married Annatje Storm, 1st Reform Dutch Church, Poughkeepsie 
1737 - Marcy Wilcox marries Gabriel Cornish
1746 - Matthew Concklin born to John and Annatje
1750/51 - Gabriel Cornish purchases land in Canaan, CT
1752 - Gabriel Cornish killed "by the kick of a horse"
1770 - Matthew Concklin married Sarah Valentine, at Poughkeepsie 
1771 - Marcy Wilcox Cornish marries Ebenezer Mudge
1772 - John Marcus Concklin born to Matthew and Sarah 
1773 - 11 Oct. Marcy & Ebenezer Mudge purchase land in Berkshire Co. MA
1775 - John Concklin signs Articles of Association of Poughkeepsie 

Revolutionary War

1791 - Henry Parsels born 12 Oct to Willem Persel and Rebecka Ossly, at Schraalenburg, Bergen Co. NJ
1793 - John Marcus Concklin married Blandean Ostrom, at Poughkeepsie 
1794 - Sarah Concklin born to John Marcus and Blandean on Oct 19
1797 - Robert Braford and Elijah Spencer purchase land in Argyle, Washington Co. NY


***  Dutch in America 1609-1974  by Gerald F. DeJong, University of South Dakota  Twayne Publishers, 1975 
*** Conklin Family Research by Morilla Garrison, 1917 
*** Four Women in a Violent Time, by Deborah Crawford  pub. 1970 Crown Publishers, Inc.; the story of Mary Dyer(1591? - 1660), Lady Deborah Moody(1600-1659), Anne Marbury Hutchinson(1591-1643) and Penelope Van Princes Stout (1622-1732), women who resided in the American colonies during the untamed 1640's 
*** Anne Hutchinson by Elizabeth Ilgenfritz, pub. 1991 by Chelsea House Publishers.